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About Grading and Excavating


Earthwork and grading is the process of preparing a site for construction by reshaping, leveling and compacting the soil.

Construction sites must be graded so that water can flow away from buildings and other structures to avoid flooding. It also ensures even ground levels for constructing foundations. Earthwork is often accompanied with grading of landforms such as ditches, berms or embankments which are used to channel water flow away from an area. A ditch could be dug across a slope to carry surface runoff into a nearby river or stream; an embankment might be built near a roadway where it intersects with another slope in order to hold back floodwaters during heavy rainfall events. A berm may also be constructed along a shoreline next to undeveloped land in order to hold surface runoff water out of the way during construction activities.

Grading road surfaces can involve scraping or brushing off loose particles so that new bitumen, asphalt, concrete or stone aggregate can be added and compacted to form a strong, dense bond.

What is grading a site?

Grading a site involves the process of leveling the ground and moving soil to create a surface that is more even. This creates a flat construction site where a foundation for a building will be able to be laid. It also ensures water drains away from buildings and other structures to avoid flooding. Grading landforms such as hills, berms, or embankments can be done in order to channel water away from an area.

Earthwork and grading helps make construction sites safe, even, and functional for anything from residential homes to industrial plants.

What is a site grading plan?

A site grading plan is an initial plan for building a construction project. The site should be graded so that all dangers are assessed and according to regulations. The site should also be graded so that water can flow away from buildings and other structures to avoid flooding.

This includes reshaping, leveling, compacting, and preparing for construction by grading the soil in order to create a flat surface where foundations will be able to be laid. Earthwork is often accompanied with grading of landforms such as ditches or embankments which are used to channel water flow away from areas.

What is the grading process?

The grading process is the process of leveling the ground and moving soil to create a surface that is more even. This creates a flat construction site where a foundation for a building will be able to be laid.

The grading process is the process of leveling the ground and moving soil to create a surface that is more even. This creates a flat construction site where a foundation for a building will be able to be laid.

Earthwork and grading helps make construction sites safe, even, and functional for anything from residential homes to industrial plants.

What is the difference between grading and earthwork?

A site needs to be graded so that all dangers are assessed and according to regulations prior to construction taking place. Earthwork involves the process of reshaping, leveling and compacting soil to create a flat surface for building foundations.

What is the difference between grading and land shoring?

Land shoring is typically categorized by supporting excavation walls with wooden planks or steel piles that are driven into dirt or clay. Land shoring is limited in the amount of support it can provide. Grading and land shoring often go hand in hand, with grading done before land shoring takes place and vice versa.

What is the difference between site grading and soil erosion?

Site grading helps make construction sites safe, even, and functional for anything from residential homes to industrial plants. Soil erosion is a natural process or human-induced process of soil removal from one location on the landscape. It often leads to serious land degradation and is exacerbated by deforestation, drought, flooding, desertification and poor agricultural practices.

What is a good soil for grading?

A good soil for grading is free draining with a low water table. A sloping topography helps to divert water away from buildings and other structures.

Types of soil:

A site grading plan is an initial plan for building a construction project. The site should be graded so that all dangers are assessed and according to regulations. Before starting any type of earthwork it is key to first determine the types of soils on-site. There are three types of soils:

  1. Cohesive Soil - Type of soil where particles adhere together and can hold its shape when removed from the ground, also referred to as sticky soil.
  2. Granular Soil - A type of soil that is composed of small round pieces or particles and does not stick together in a mass when it is removed from the ground.
  3. Fragile Soil - A type of soil that can be easily removed in large quantities when it is dry, however when wet it becomes very strong and clay-like.

About South Los Angeles, CA

In 1880, the University of Southern California, and in 1920, the Doheny Campus of Mount St. Mary's University, were founded in South Los Angeles. The 1932 and 1984 Olympic Games took place near the USC campus at neighboring Exposition Park, where the Los Angeles Coliseum is located.

Until the 1920s, the South Los Angeles neighborhood of West Adams was one of the most desirable areas of the City. As the wealthy were building stately mansions in West Adams and Jefferson Park, the White working class was establishing itself in Crenshaw and Hyde Park. Affluent blacks gradually moved into West Adams and Jefferson Park. As construction along the Wilshire Boulevard corridor gradually increased in the 1920s, the development of the city was drawn west of downtown and away from South Los Angeles.

In the eastern side of South Los Angeles (which the city calls the "Southeastern CPA") roughly east of the Harbor Freeway, the area grew southward in the late 1800s along the ever longer streetcar routes. Areas north of Slauson Boulevard were mostly built out by the late 1910s, while south of Slauson land was mostly undeveloped, much used by Chinese and Japanese Americans growing produce. In 1903, the farmers were bought out and Ascot Park racetrack was built, which turned into a "den of gambling and drinking". In the late 1910s the park was razed and freed up land for quick build-up of residential and industrial buildings in the 1920s.

"By 1940, approximately 70 percent of the black population of Los Angeles was confined to the Central Avenue corridor"; the area of modest bungalows and low-rise commercial buildings along Central Avenue emerged as the heart of the black community in southern California. Originally, the city's black community was concentrated around what is now Little Tokyo, but began moving south after 1900. It had one of the first jazz scenes in the western U.S., with trombonist Kid Ory a prominent resident. Under racially restrictive covenants, blacks were allowed to own property only within the "Slauson Box" (the area bounded by Main, Slauson, Alameda, and Washington) and in Watts, as well as in small enclaves elsewhere in the city. The working- and middle-class blacks who poured into Los Angeles during the Great Depression and in search of jobs during World War II found themselves penned into what was becoming a severely overcrowded neighborhood. During the war, blacks faced such dire housing shortages that the Housing Authority of the City of Los Angeles built the virtually all-black and Latino Pueblo Del Rio project, designed by Richard Neutra.

During this time, African Americans remained a minority alongside whites, Asians, and Hispanics; but by the 1930s those groups moved out of the area, African Americans continued to move in, and eastern South LA became majority black. Whites in previously established communities south of Slauson, east of Alameda and west of San Pedro streets persecuted blacks moving beyond established "lines", and thus blacks became effectively restricted to the area in between.

When the Supreme Court banned the legal enforcement of race-oriented restrictive covenants in 1948's Shelley v. Kraemer, blacks began to move into areas outside the increasingly overcrowded Slauson-Alameda-Washington-Main settlement area. For a time in the early 1950s, southern Los Angeles became the site of significant racial violence, with whites bombing, firing into, and burning crosses on the lawns of homes purchased by black families south of Slauson. In an escalation of behavior that began in the 1920s, white gangs in nearby cities such as South Gate and Huntington Park routinely accosted blacks who traveled through white areas. The black mutual protection clubs that formed in response to these assaults became the basis of the region's street gangs.

As in most urban areas, 1950s freeway construction radically altered the geography of southern Los Angeles. Freeway routes tended to reinforce traditional segregation lines.

Beginning in the 1970s, the rapid decline of the area's manufacturing base resulted in a loss of the jobs that had allowed skilled union workers to enjoy a middle-class lifestyle. Downtown Los Angeles' service sector, which had long been dominated by unionized African Americans earning relatively fair wages, replaced most black workers with newly arrived Mexican and Central American immigrants.

Widespread unemployment, poverty and street crime contributed to the rise of street gangs in South Central, such as the Crips and the Bloods. The gangs became even more powerful with money coming in from drugs, especially the crack cocaine trade that was dominated by gangs in the 1980s.

Paul Feldman of the Los Angeles Times wrote in 1989:

He added that they believed such "distinctive neighborhoods" as Leimert Park, Lafayette Square and the Crenshaw District were "well-removed" from South Central.

By the early 2010s, the crime rate of South Los Angeles had declined significantly. Redevelopment, improved police patrol, community-based peace programs, gang intervention work, and youth development organizations lowered the murder and crime rates to levels that had not been seen since the 1940s and '50s. Nevertheless, South Los Angeles was still known for its gangs at the time. After leading the nation in homicides again in 2002, the City Council of Los Angeles voted to change the name South Central Los Angeles to South Los Angeles on all city documents in 2003, a move supporters said would "help erase a stigma that has dogged the southern part of the city."

On August 11, 2014, just two days after the shooting of Michael Brown in Ferguson, Missouri, a resident of South L.A., Ezell Ford, described as "a mentally ill 25-year-old man," was fatally shot by two Los Angeles police officers (see Shooting of Ezell Ford). Since then, a number of protests focused on events in Ferguson have taken place in South Los Angeles.

After the 2008 economic recession, housing prices in South Los Angeles recovered significantly, and by 2018, many had come to see South Los Angeles as a prime target for gentrification amid rising real estate values. Residents and activists are against market-rate housing as they have concerns that these projects will encourage landlords to sell, redevelop their properties or jack up rents. Under California law, cities can't reject residential projects based on these criticisms if the project complies with applicable planning and zoning rules. The construction of the K Line light rail through the neighborhood has stimulated the building of denser multistory projects, especially around the new stations. The NFL Stadium in Inglewood also encourages gentrification according to activists.

Real estate values in South Los Angeles were further bolstered by news that Los Angeles will host the 2028 Olympics, with many of the games to be hosted on or near the USC campus.

The City of Los Angeles delineates the South Los Angeles Community Plan area as an area of 15.5 square miles. Adjacent communities include West Adams, Baldwin Hills, and Leimert Park to the west, and Southeast Los Angeles (the 26-neighborhood area east of the Harbor Freeway) on the east.

According to the Los Angeles Times Mapping Project, the South Los Angeles region comprises 51 square miles, consisting of 25 neighborhoods within the City of Los Angeles as well as three unincorporated neighborhoods in the County of Los Angeles.

Google Maps delineates a similar area to the Los Angeles Times Mapping Project with notable differences on the western border. On the northwest, it omits a section of Los Angeles west of La Brea Avenue. On the southwest, it includes a section of the City of Inglewood north of Century Boulevard.

According to the Mapping L.A. survey of the Los Angeles Times, the South Los Angeles region consists of the following neighborhoods:

By the end of the 1980s, South Los Angeles had an increasing number of Hispanics and Latinos, mostly in the northeastern section of the region.

According to scholars, "Between 1970 and 1990 the South LA area went from 80% African American and 9% Latino to 50.3% African American and 44% Latino." This massive and rapid residential demographic change occurred as resources in the area were shrinking due to global economic restructuring described above and due to the federal government's decrease in funding of urban anti-poverty and jobs programs, and other vital social services like healthcare. The socio-economic context described here increased the perception and the reality of competition amongst Asians, African Americans, and Latinos in South LA. The results from the 2000 census which show continuing demographic change coupled with recent economic trends indicating a deterioration of conditions in South LA suggest that such competition will not soon ease."

In the 2014 census, the area of South Los Angeles had a population of 271,040. 50.0% of the residents were Hispanic or Latino, 39.7% were African American.

Many African Americans from South Los Angeles have moved to Palmdale and Lancaster in the Antelope Valley.

South Los Angeles has received immigrants from Mexico and Central America.

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