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California is a state in the Western United States. With over 38.9 million residents across a total area of approximately 163,696 square miles (423,970 km), it is the most populous U.S. state, the third-largest U.S. state by area, and the most populated subnational entity in North America. California borders Oregon to the north, Nevada and Arizona to the east, and the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; it has a coastline along the Pacific Ocean to the west.

The Greater Los Angeles and San Francisco Bay areas in California are the nation's second and fifth-most populous urban regions, respectively. Greater Los Angeles has over 18.7 million residents and the San Francisco Bay Area has over 9.6 million residents. Los Angeles is the state's most populous city and the nation's second-most populous city. San Francisco is the second-most densely populated major city in the country. Los Angeles County is the country's most populous county, and San Bernardino County is the nation's largest county by area. Sacramento is the state's capital.

California's economy is the largest of any state within the United States, with a $3.6 trillion gross state product (GSP) as of 2022. It is the largest sub-national economy in the world. If California were a sovereign nation, it would rank as the world's fifth-largest economy as of 2022, behind India and ahead of the United Kingdom, as well as the 37th most populous. The Greater Los Angeles area and the San Francisco area are the nation's second- and fourth-largest urban economies ($1.0 trillion and $0.6 trillion respectively as of 2020). The San Francisco Bay Area Combined Statistical Area had the nation's highest gross domestic product per capita ($106,757) among large primary statistical areas in 2018, and is home to five of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. Slightly over 84 percent of the state's residents 25 or older hold a high school degree, the lowest high school education rate of all 50 states.

Prior to European colonization, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America, and the indigenous peoples of California constituted the highest Native American population density north of what is now Mexico. European exploration in the 16th and 17th centuries led to the colonization of California by the Spanish Empire. In 1804, it was included in Alta California province within the Viceroyalty of New Spain. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821, following its successful war for independence, but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War. The California Gold Rush started in 1848 and led to dramatic social and demographic changes, including the depopulation of indigenous peoples in the California genocide. The western portion of Alta California was then organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850, as a free state, following the Compromise of 1850.

Notable contributions to popular culture, ranging from entertainment, sports, music, and fashion, have their origins in California. The state also has made substantial contributions in the fields of communication, information, innovation, education, environmentalism, entertainment, economics, politics, technology, and religion. California is the home of Hollywood, the oldest and one of the largest film industries in the world, profoundly influencing global entertainment. It is considered the origin of the American film industry, hippie counterculture, beach and car culture, the personal computer, the internet, fast food, diners, burger joints, skateboarding, and the fortune cookie, among other inventions. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are widely seen as the centers of the global technology and U.S. film industries, respectively. California's economy is very diverse. California's agricultural industry has the highest output of any U.S. state, and is led by its dairy, almonds, and grapes. With the busiest ports in the country (Los Angeles and Long Beach), California plays a pivotal role in the global supply chain, hauling in about 40% of all goods imported to the United States.

The state's extremely diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast and metropolitan areas in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountains in the east, and from the redwood and Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. Two-thirds of the nation's earthquake risk lies in California. The Central Valley, a fertile agricultural area, dominates the state's center. California is well known for its warm Mediterranean climate along the coast and monsoon seasonal weather inland. The large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Droughts and wildfires are an ongoing issue for the state.

The Spaniards gave the name Las Californias to the peninsula of Baja California and to Alta California, the latter region becoming the present-day state of California.

The name derived from the mythical island of California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Castilian author Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo. This work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadís de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful Black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the Muslim title caliph, used for Muslim leaders.

Official abbreviations of the state's name include CA, Cal., Calif., and US-CA.

California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Historians generally agree that there were at least 300,000 people living in California prior to European colonization. The indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct ethnic groups, inhabiting environments ranging from mountains and deserts to islands and redwood forests.

Living in these diverse geographic areas, the indigenous peoples developed complex forms of ecosystem management, including forest gardening to ensure the regular availability of food and medicinal plants. This was a form of sustainable agriculture. To mitigate destructive large wildfires from ravaging the natural environment, indigenous peoples developed a practice of controlled burning. This practice was recognized for its benefits by the California government in 2022.

These groups were also diverse in their political organization, with bands, tribes, villages, and, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash, Pomo and Salinan. Trade, intermarriage, craft specialists, and military alliances fostered social and economic relationships between many groups. Although nations would sometimes war, most armed conflicts were between groups of men for vengeance. Acquiring territory was not usually the purpose of these small-scale battles.

Men and women generally had different roles in society. Women were often responsible for weaving, harvesting, processing, and preparing food, while men for hunting and other forms of physical labor. Most societies also had roles for people whom the Spanish referred to as joyas, who they saw as "men who dressed as women". Joyas were responsible for death, burial, and mourning rituals, and they performed women's social roles. Indigenous societies had terms such as two-spirit to refer to them. The Chumash referred to them as 'aqi. The early Spanish settlers detested and sought to eliminate them.

The first Europeans to explore the coast of California were the members of a Spanish maritime expedition led by Portuguese captain Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo in 1542. Cabrillo was commissioned by Antonio de Mendoza, the Viceroy of New Spain, to lead an expedition up the Pacific coast in search of trade opportunities; they entered San Diego Bay on September 28, 1542, and reached at least as far north as San Miguel Island. Privateer and explorer Francis Drake explored and claimed an undefined portion of the California coast in 1579, landing north of the future city of San Francisco. Sebastián Vizcaíno explored and mapped the coast of California in 1602 for New Spain, putting ashore in Monterey. Despite the on-the-ground explorations of California in the 16th century, Rodríguez's idea of California as an island persisted. Such depictions appeared on many European maps well into the 18th century.

The Portolá expedition of 1769–70 was a pivotal event in the Spanish colonization of California, resulting in the establishment of numerous missions, presidios, and pueblos. The military and civil contingent of the expedition was led by Gaspar de Portolá, who traveled over land from Sonora into California, while the religious component was headed by Junípero Serra, who came by sea from Baja California. In 1769, Portolá and Serra established Mission San Diego de Alcalá and the Presidio of San Diego, the first religious and military settlements founded by the Spanish in California. By the end of the expedition in 1770, they would establish the Presidio of Monterey and Mission San Carlos Borromeo de Carmelo on Monterey Bay.

After the Portolà expedition, Spanish missionaries led by Father-President Serra set out to establish 21 Spanish missions of California along El Camino Real ("The Royal Road") and along the California coast, 16 sites of which having been chosen during the Portolá expedition. Numerous major cities in California grew out of missions, including San Francisco (Mission San Francisco de Asís), San Diego (Mission San Diego de Alcalá), Ventura (Mission San Buenaventura), or Santa Barbara (Mission Santa Barbara), among others.

Juan Bautista de Anza led a similarly important expedition throughout California in 1775–76, which would extend deeper into the interior and north of California. The Anza expedition selected numerous sites for missions, presidios, and pueblos, which subsequently would be established by settlers. Gabriel Moraga, a member of the expedition, would also christen many of California's prominent rivers with their names in 1775–1776, such as the Sacramento River and the San Joaquin River. After the expedition, Gabriel's son, José Joaquín Moraga, would found the pueblo of San Jose in 1777, making it the first civilian-established city in California.

During this same period, sailors from the Russian Empire explored along the northern coast of California. In 1812, the Russian-American Company established a trading post and small fortification at Fort Ross on the North Coast. Fort Ross was primarily used to supply Russia's Alaskan colonies with food supplies. The settlement did not meet much success, failing to attract settlers or establish long term trade viability, and was abandoned by 1841.

During the War of Mexican Independence, Alta California was largely unaffected and uninvolved in the revolution, though many Californios supported independence from Spain, which many believed had neglected California and limited its development. Spain's trade monopoly on California had limited local trade prospects. Following Mexican independence, California ports were freely able to trade with foreign merchants. Governor Pablo Vicente de Solá presided over the transition from Spanish colonial rule to independent Mexican rule.

In 1821, the Mexican War of Independence gave the Mexican Empire (which included California) independence from Spain. For the next 25 years, Alta California remained a remote, sparsely populated, northwestern administrative district of the newly independent country of Mexico, which shortly after independence became a republic.
The missions, which controlled most of the best land in the state, were secularized by 1834 and became the property of the Mexican government. The governor granted many square leagues of land to others with political influence. These huge ranchos or cattle ranches emerged as the dominant institutions of Mexican California. The ranchos developed under ownership by Californios (Hispanics native of California) who traded cowhides and tallow with Boston merchants. Beef did not become a commodity until the 1849 California Gold Rush.

From the 1820s, trappers and settlers from the United States and Canada began to arrive in Northern California. These new arrivals used the Siskiyou Trail, California Trail, Oregon Trail and Old Spanish Trail to cross the rugged mountains and harsh deserts in and surrounding California.
The early government of the newly independent Mexico was highly unstable, and in a reflection of this, from 1831 onwards, California also experienced a series of armed disputes, both internal and with the central Mexican government. During this tumultuous political period Juan Bautista Alvarado was able to secure the governorship during 1836–1842. The military action which first brought Alvarado to power had momentarily declared California to be an independent state, and had been aided by Anglo-American residents of California, including Isaac Graham. In 1840, one hundred of those residents who did not have passports were arrested, leading to the Graham Affair, which was resolved in part with the intercession of Royal Navy officials.

One of the largest ranchers in California was John Marsh. After failing to obtain justice against squatters on his land from the Mexican courts, he determined that California should become part of the United States. Marsh conducted a letter-writing campaign espousing the California climate, the soil, and other reasons to settle there, as well as the best route to follow, which became known as "Marsh's route". His letters were read, reread, passed around, and printed in newspapers throughout the country, and started the first wagon trains rolling to California. He invited immigrants to stay on his ranch until they could get settled, and assisted in their obtaining passports.

After ushering in the period of organized emigration to California, Marsh became involved in a military battle between the much-hated Mexican general, Manuel Micheltorena and the California governor he had replaced, Juan Bautista Alvarado. The armies of each met at the Battle of Providencia near Los Angeles. Marsh had been forced against his will to join Micheltorena's army. Ignoring his superiors, during the battle, he signaled the other side for a parley. There were many settlers from the United States fighting on both sides. He convinced each side that they had no reason to be fighting each other. As a result of Marsh's actions, they abandoned the fight, Micheltorena was defeated, and California-born Pio Pico was returned to the governorship. This paved the way to California's ultimate acquisition by the United States.

In 1846, a group of American settlers in and around Sonoma rebelled against Mexican rule during the Bear Flag Revolt. Afterward, rebels raised the Bear Flag (featuring a bear, a star, a red stripe and the words "California Republic") at Sonoma. The Republic's only president was William B. Ide, who played a pivotal role during the Bear Flag Revolt. This revolt by American settlers served as a prelude to the later American military invasion of California and was closely coordinated with nearby American military commanders.

The California Republic was short-lived; the same year marked the outbreak of the Mexican–American War (1846–1848).

Commodore John D. Sloat of the United States Navy sailed into Monterey Bay in 1846 and began the U.S. military invasion of California, with Northern California capitulating in less than a month to the United States forces. In Southern California, Californios continued to resist American forces. Notable military engagements of the conquest include the Battle of San Pasqual and the Battle of Dominguez Rancho in Southern California, as well as the Battle of Olómpali and the Battle of Santa Clara in Northern California. After a series of defensive battles in the south, the Treaty of Cahuenga was signed by the Californios on January 13, 1847, securing a censure and establishing de facto American control in California.

Following the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (February 2, 1848) that ended the war, the westernmost portion of the annexed Mexican territory of Alta California soon became the American state of California, and the remainder of the old territory was then subdivided into the new American Territories of Arizona, Nevada, Colorado and Utah. The even more lightly populated and arid lower region of old Baja California remained as a part of Mexico. In 1846, the total settler population of the western part of the old Alta California had been estimated to be no more than 8,000, plus about 100,000 Native Americans, down from about 300,000 before Hispanic settlement in 1769.

In 1848, only one week before the official American annexation of the area, gold was discovered in California, this being an event which was to forever alter both the state's demographics and its finances. Soon afterward, a massive influx of immigration into the area resulted, as prospectors and miners arrived by the thousands. The population burgeoned with United States citizens, Europeans, Middle Easterns, Chinese and other immigrants during the great California Gold Rush. By the time of California's application for statehood in 1850, the settler population of California had multiplied to 100,000. By 1854, more than 300,000 settlers had come. Between 1847 and 1870, the population of San Francisco increased from 500 to 150,000.

The seat of government for California under Spanish and later Mexican rule had been located in Monterey from 1777 until 1845. Pio Pico, the last Mexican governor of Alta California, had briefly moved the capital to Los Angeles in 1845. The United States consulate had also been located in Monterey, under consul Thomas O. Larkin.

In 1849, a state Constitutional Convention was first held in Monterey. Among the first tasks of the convention was a decision on a location for the new state capital. The first full legislative sessions were held in San Jose (1850–1851). Subsequent locations included Vallejo (1852–1853), and nearby Benicia (1853–1854); these locations eventually proved to be inadequate as well. The capital has been located in Sacramento since 1854 with only a short break in 1862 when legislative sessions were held in San Francisco due to flooding in Sacramento.
Once the state's Constitutional Convention had finalized its state constitution, it applied to the U.S. Congress for admission to statehood. On September 9, 1850, as part of the Compromise of 1850, California became a free state and September 9 a state holiday.

During the American Civil War (1861–1865), California sent gold shipments eastward to Washington in support of the Union. However, due to the existence of a large contingent of pro-South sympathizers within the state, the state was not able to muster any full military regiments to send eastwards to officially serve in the Union war effort. Still, several smaller military units within the Union army, such as the "California 100 Company", were unofficially associated with the state of California due to a majority of their members being from California.

At the time of California's admission into the Union, travel between California and the rest of the continental United States had been a time-consuming and dangerous feat. Nineteen years later, and seven years after it was greenlighted by President Lincoln, the first transcontinental railroad was completed in 1869. California was then reachable from the eastern States in a week's time.

Much of the state was extremely well suited to fruit cultivation and agriculture in general. Vast expanses of wheat, other cereal crops, vegetable crops, cotton, and nut and fruit trees were grown (including oranges in Southern California), and the foundation was laid for the state's prodigious agricultural production in the Central Valley and elsewhere.

In the nineteenth century, a large number of migrants from China traveled to the state as part of the Gold Rush or to seek work. Even though the Chinese proved indispensable in building the transcontinental railroad from California to Utah, perceived job competition with the Chinese led to anti-Chinese riots in the state, and eventually the US ended migration from China partially as a response to pressure from California with the 1882 Chinese Exclusion Act.

Under earlier Spanish and Mexican rule, California's original native population had precipitously declined, above all, from Eurasian diseases to which the indigenous people of California had not yet developed a natural immunity. Under its new American administration, California's first governor Peter Hardeman Burnett instituted policies that have been described as a state-sanctioned policy of elimination toward California's indigenous people. Burnett announced in 1851 in his Second Annual Message to the Legislature: "That a war of extermination will continue to be waged between the races until the Indian race becomes extinct must be expected. While we cannot anticipate the result with but painful regret, the inevitable destiny of the race is beyond the power and wisdom of man to avert."

As in other American states, indigenous peoples were forcibly removed from their lands by American settlers, like miners, ranchers, and farmers. Although California had entered the American union as a free state, the "loitering or orphaned Indians," were de facto enslaved by their new Anglo-American masters under the 1850 Act for the Government and Protection of Indians. One of these de facto slave auctions was approved by the Los Angeles City Council and occurred for nearly twenty years. There were many massacres in which hundreds of indigenous people were killed by settlers for their land.

Between 1850 and 1860, the California state government paid around 1.5 million dollars (some 250,000 of which was reimbursed by the federal government) to hire militias with the stated purpose of protecting settlers, however these militias perpetrated numerous massacres of indigenous people. Indigenous people were also forcibly moved to reservations and rancherias, which were often small and isolated and without enough natural resources or funding from the government to adequately sustain the populations living on them. As a result, settler colonialism was a calamity for indigenous people. Several scholars and Native American activists, including Benjamin Madley and Ed Castillo, have described the actions of the California government as a genocide, as well as the 40th governor of California Gavin Newsom. Benjamin Madley estimates that from 1846 to 1873, between 9,492 and 16,092 indigenous people were killed, including between 1,680 and 3,741 killed by the U.S. Army.

In the twentieth century, thousands of Japanese people migrated to the US and California specifically to attempt to purchase and own land in the state. However, the state in 1913 passed the Alien Land Act, excluding Asian immigrants from owning land. During World War II, Japanese Americans in California were interned in concentration camps such as at Tule Lake and Manzanar. In 2020, California officially apologized for this internment.

Migration to California accelerated during the early 20th century with the completion of major transcontinental highways like the Lincoln Highway and Route 66. In the period from 1900 to 1965, the population grew from fewer than one million to the greatest in the Union. In 1940, the Census Bureau reported California's population as 6.0% Hispanic, 2.4% Asian, and 89.5% non-Hispanic white.

To meet the population's needs, major engineering feats like the California and Los Angeles Aqueducts; the Oroville and Shasta Dams; and the Bay and Golden Gate Bridges were built across the state. The state government also adopted the California Master Plan for Higher Education in 1960 to develop a highly efficient system of public education.

Meanwhile, attracted to the mild Mediterranean climate, cheap land, and the state's wide variety of geography, filmmakers established the studio system in Hollywood in the 1920s. California manufactured 8.7 percent of total United States military armaments produced during World War II, ranking third (behind New York and Michigan) among the 48 states. California however easily ranked first in production of military ships during the war (transport, cargo, [merchant ships] such as Liberty ships, Victory ships, and warships) at drydock facilities in San Diego, Los Angeles, and the San Francisco Bay Area. After World War II, California's economy greatly expanded due to strong aerospace and defense industries, whose size decreased following the end of the Cold War. Stanford University and its Dean of Engineering Frederick Terman began encouraging faculty and graduates to stay in California instead of leaving the state, and develop a high-tech region in the area now known as Silicon Valley. As a result of these efforts, California is regarded as a world center of the entertainment and music industries, of technology, engineering, and the aerospace industry, and as the United States center of agricultural production. Just before the Dot Com Bust, California had the fifth-largest economy in the world among nations.

In the mid and late twentieth century, a number of race-related incidents occurred in the state. Tensions between police and African Americans, combined with unemployment and poverty in inner cities, led to violent riots, such as the 1965 Watts riots and 1992 Rodney King riots. California was also the hub of the Black Panther Party, a group known for arming African Americans to defend against racial injustice and for organizing free breakfast programs for schoolchildren. Additionally, Mexican, Filipino, and other migrant farm workers rallied in the state around Cesar Chavez for better pay in the 1960s and 1970s.

During the 20th century, two great disasters happened in California. The 1906 San Francisco earthquake and 1928 St. Francis Dam flood remain the deadliest in U.S. history.

Although air pollution problems have been reduced, health problems associated with pollution have continued. The brown haze known as "smog" has been substantially abated after the passage of federal and state restrictions on automobile exhaust.

An energy crisis in 2001 led to rolling blackouts, soaring power rates, and the importation of electricity from neighboring states. Southern California Edison and Pacific Gas and Electric Company came under heavy criticism.

Housing prices in urban areas continued to increase; a modest home which in the 1960s cost $25,000 would cost half a million dollars or more in urban areas by 2005. More people commuted longer hours to afford a home in more rural areas while earning larger salaries in the urban areas. Speculators bought houses they never intended to live in, expecting to make a huge profit in a matter of months, then rolling it over by buying more properties. Mortgage companies were compliant, as everyone assumed the prices would keep rising. The bubble burst in 2007–8 as housing prices began to crash and the boom years ended. Hundreds of billions in property values vanished and foreclosures soared as many financial institutions and investors were badly hurt.

In the twenty-first century, droughts and frequent wildfires attributed to climate change have occurred in the state. From 2011 to 2017, a persistent drought was the worst in its recorded history. The 2018 wildfire season was the state's deadliest and most destructive, most notably Camp Fire.

One of the first confirmed COVID-19 cases in the United States that occurred in California was first of which was confirmed on January 26, 2020. Meaning, all of the early confirmed cases were persons who had recently travelled to China in Asia, as testing was restricted to this group. On this January 29, 2020, as disease containment protocols were still being developed, the U.S. Department of State evacuated 195 persons from Wuhan, China aboard a chartered flight to March Air Reserve Base in Riverside County, and in this process, it may have granted and conferred to escalated within the land and the US at cosmic. On February 5, 2020, the U.S. evacuated 345 more citizens from Hubei Province to two military bases in California, Travis Air Force Base in Solano County and Marine Corps Air Station Miramar, San Diego, where they were quarantined for 14 days. A state of emergency was largely declared in this state of the nation on March 4, 2020, and as of February 24, 2021, remains in effect. A mandatory statewide stay-at-home order was issued on March 19, 2020, due to increase, which was ended on January 25, 2021, allowing citizens to return to normal life. On April 6, 2021, the state announced plans to fully reopen the economy by June 15, 2021.

In 2019, the 40th governor of California, Gavin Newsom formally apologized to the indigenous peoples of California for the California genocide: "Genocide. No other way to describe it, and that's the way it needs to be described in the history books." Newsom further acknowledged that "the actions of the state 150 years ago have ongoing ramifications even today." Cultural and language revitalization efforts among indigenous Californians have progressed among several tribes as of 2022. Some land returns to indigenous stewardship have occurred throughout California. In 2022, the largest dam removal and river restoration project in US history was announced for the Klamath River as a win for California tribes.

Covering an area of 163,696 sq mi (423,970 km), California is the third-largest state in the United States in area, after Alaska and Texas. California is one of the most geographically diverse states in the union and is often geographically bisected into two regions, Southern California, comprising the ten southernmost counties, and Northern California, comprising the 48 northernmost counties. It is bordered by Oregon to the north, Nevada to the east and northeast, Arizona to the southeast, the Pacific Ocean to the west and shares an international border with the Mexican state of Baja California to the south (with which it makes up part of The Californias region of North America, alongside Baja California Sur).

In the middle of the state lies the California Central Valley, bounded by the Sierra Nevada in the east, the coastal mountain ranges in the west, the Cascade Range to the north and by the Tehachapi Mountains in the south. The Central Valley is California's productive agricultural heartland.

Divided in two by the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta, the northern portion, the Sacramento Valley serves as the watershed of the Sacramento River, while the southern portion, the San Joaquin Valley is the watershed for the San Joaquin River. Both valleys derive their names from the rivers that flow through them. With dredging, the Sacramento and the San Joaquin Rivers have remained deep enough for several inland cities to be seaports.

The Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta is a critical water supply hub for the state. Water is diverted from the delta and through an extensive network of pumps and canals that traverse nearly the length of the state, to the Central Valley and the State Water Projects and other needs. Water from the Delta provides drinking water for nearly 23 million people, almost two-thirds of the state's population as well as water for farmers on the west side of the San Joaquin Valley.

Suisun Bay lies at the confluence of the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers. The water is drained by the Carquinez Strait, which flows into San Pablo Bay, a northern extension of San Francisco Bay, which then connects to the Pacific Ocean via the Golden Gate strait.

The Channel Islands are located off the Southern coast, while the Farallon Islands lie west of San Francisco.

The Sierra Nevada (Spanish for "snowy range") includes the highest peak in the contiguous 48 states, Mount Whitney, at 14,505 feet (4,421 m). The range embraces Yosemite Valley, famous for its glacially carved domes, and Sequoia National Park, home to the giant sequoia trees, the largest living organisms on Earth, and the deep freshwater lake, Lake Tahoe, the largest lake in the state by volume.

To the east of the Sierra Nevada are Owens Valley and Mono Lake, an essential migratory bird habitat. In the western part of the state is Clear Lake, the largest freshwater lake by area entirely in California. Although Lake Tahoe is larger, it is divided by the California/Nevada border. The Sierra Nevada falls to Arctic temperatures in winter and has several dozen small glaciers, including Palisade Glacier, the southernmost glacier in the United States.

The Tulare Lake was the largest freshwater lake west of the Mississippi River. A remnant of Pleistocene-era Lake Corcoran, Tulare Lake dried up by the early 20th century after its tributary rivers were diverted for agricultural irrigation and municipal water uses.

About 45 percent of the state's total surface area is covered by forests, and California's diversity of pine species is unmatched by any other state. California contains more forestland than any other state except Alaska. Many of the trees in the California White Mountains are the oldest in the world; an individual bristlecone pine is over 5,000 years old.

In the south is a large inland salt lake, the Salton Sea. The south-central desert is called the Mojave; to the northeast of the Mojave lies Death Valley, which contains the lowest and hottest place in North America, the Badwater Basin at −279 feet (−85 m). The horizontal distance from the bottom of Death Valley to the top of Mount Whitney is less than 90 miles (140 km). Indeed, almost all of southeastern California is arid, hot desert, with routine extreme high temperatures during the summer. The southeastern border of California with Arizona is entirely formed by the Colorado River, from which the southern part of the state gets about half of its water.

A majority of California's cities are located in either the San Francisco Bay Area or the Sacramento metropolitan area in Northern California; or the Los Angeles area, the Inland Empire, or the San Diego metropolitan area in Southern California. The Los Angeles Area, the Bay Area, and the San Diego metropolitan area are among several major metropolitan areas along the California coast.

As part of the Ring of Fire, California is subject to tsunamis, floods, droughts, Santa Ana winds, wildfires, and landslides on steep terrain; California also has several volcanoes. It has many earthquakes due to several faults running through the state, the largest being the San Andreas Fault. About 37,000 earthquakes are recorded each year; most are too small to be felt, but two-thirds of the human risk from earthquakes lies in California.

Most of the state has a Mediterranean climate. The cool California Current offshore often creates summer fog near the coast. Farther inland, there are colder winters and hotter summers. The maritime moderation results in the shoreline summertime temperatures of Los Angeles and San Francisco being the coolest of all major metropolitan areas of the United States and uniquely cool compared to areas on the same latitude in the interior and on the east coast of the North American continent. Even the San Diego shoreline bordering Mexico is cooler in summer than most areas in the contiguous United States. Just a few miles inland, summer temperature extremes are significantly higher, with downtown Los Angeles being several degrees warmer than at the coast. The same microclimate phenomenon is seen in the climate of the Bay Area, where areas sheltered from the ocean experience significantly hotter summers and colder winters in contrast with nearby areas closer to the ocean.

Northern parts of the state have more rain than the south. California's mountain ranges also influence the climate: some of the rainiest parts of the state are west-facing mountain slopes. Coastal northwestern California has a temperate climate, and the Central Valley has a Mediterranean climate but with greater temperature extremes than the coast. The high mountains, including the Sierra Nevada, have an alpine climate with snow in winter and mild to moderate heat in summer.

California's mountains produce rain shadows on the eastern side, creating extensive deserts. The higher elevation deserts of eastern California have hot summers and cold winters, while the low deserts east of the Southern California mountains have hot summers and nearly frostless mild winters. Death Valley, a desert with large expanses below sea level, is considered the hottest location in the world; the highest temperature in the world, 134 °F (56.7 °C), was recorded there on July 10, 1913. The lowest temperature in California was −45 °F (−43 °C) on January 20, 1937, in Boca.

The table below lists average temperatures for January and August in a selection of places throughout the state; some highly populated and some not. This includes the relatively cool summers of the Humboldt Bay region around Eureka, the extreme heat of Death Valley, and the mountain climate of Mammoth in the Sierra Nevada.

The wide range of climates leads to a high demand for water. Over time, droughts have been increasing due to climate change and overextraction, becoming less seasonal and more year-round, further straining California's electricity supply and water security and having an impact on California business, industry, and agriculture.

In 2022, a new state program was created in collaboration with indigenous peoples of California to revive the practice of controlled burns as a way of clearing excessive forest debris and making landscapes more resilient to wildfires. Native American use of fire in ecosystem management was outlawed in 1911, yet has now been recognized.

California is one of the ecologically richest and most diverse parts of the world, and includes some of the most endangered ecological communities. California is part of the Nearctic realm and spans a number of terrestrial ecoregions.

California's large number of endemic species includes relict species, which have died out elsewhere, such as the Catalina ironwood (Lyonothamnus floribundus). Many other endemics originated through differentiation or adaptive radiation, whereby multiple species develop from a common ancestor to take advantage of diverse ecological conditions such as the California lilac (Ceanothus). Many California endemics have become endangered, as urbanization, logging, overgrazing, and the introduction of exotic species have encroached on their habitat.

California boasts several superlatives in its collection of flora: the largest trees, the tallest trees, and the oldest trees. California's native grasses are perennial plants, and there are close to hundred succulent species native to the state. After European contact, these were generally replaced by invasive species of European annual grasses; and, in modern times, California's hills turn a characteristic golden-brown in summer.

Because California has the greatest diversity of climate and terrain, the state has six life zones which are the lower Sonoran Desert; upper Sonoran (foothill regions and some coastal lands), transition (coastal areas and moist northeastern counties); and the Canadian, Hudsonian, and Arctic Zones, comprising the state's highest elevations.

Plant life in the dry climate of the lower Sonoran zone contains a diversity of native cactus, mesquite, and paloverde. The Joshua tree is found in the Mojave Desert. Flowering plants include the dwarf desert poppy and a variety of asters. Fremont cottonwood and valley oak thrive in the Central Valley. The upper Sonoran zone includes the chaparral belt, characterized by forests of small shrubs, stunted trees, and herbaceous plants. Nemophila, mint, Phacelia, Viola, and the California poppy (Eschscholzia californica, the state flower) also flourish in this zone, along with the lupine, more species of which occur here than anywhere else in the world.

The transition zone includes most of California's forests with the redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) and the "big tree" or giant sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum), among the oldest living things on earth (some are said to have lived at least 4,000 years). Tanbark oak, California laurel, sugar pine, madrona, broad-leaved maple, and Douglas-fir also grow here. Forest floors are covered with swordfern, alumnroot, barrenwort, and trillium, and there are thickets of huckleberry, azalea, elder, and wild currant. Characteristic wild flowers include varieties of mariposa, tulip, and tiger and leopard lilies.

The high elevations of the Canadian zone allow the Jeffrey pine, red fir, and lodgepole pine to thrive. Brushy areas are abundant with dwarf manzanita and ceanothus; the unique Sierra puffball is also found here. Right below the timberline, in the Hudsonian zone, the whitebark, foxtail, and silver pines grow. At about 10,500 feet (3,200 m), begins the Arctic zone, a treeless region whose flora include a number of wildflowers, including Sierra primrose, yellow columbine, alpine buttercup, and alpine shooting star.

Palm trees are a well-known feature of California, particularly in Southern California and Los Angeles; many species have been imported, though the Washington filifera (commonly known as the California fan palm) is native to the state, mainly growing in the Colorado Desert oases. Other common plants that have been introduced to the state include the eucalyptus, acacia, pepper tree, geranium, and Scotch broom. The species that are federally classified as endangered are the Contra Costa wallflower, Antioch Dunes evening primrose, Solano grass, San Clemente Island larkspur, salt marsh bird's beak, McDonald's rock-cress, and Santa Barbara Island liveforever. As of December 1997, 85 plant species were listed as threatened or endangered.

In the deserts of the lower Sonoran zone, the mammals include the jackrabbit, kangaroo rat, squirrel, and opossum. Common birds include the owl, roadrunner, cactus wren, and various species of hawk. The area's reptilian life include the sidewinder viper, desert tortoise, and horned toad. The upper Sonoran zone boasts mammals such as the antelope, brown-footed woodrat, and ring-tailed cat. Birds unique to this zone are the California thrasher, bushtit, and California condor.

In the transition zone, there are Colombian black-tailed deer, black bears, gray foxes, cougars, bobcats, and Roosevelt elk. Reptiles such as the garter snakes and rattlesnakes inhabit the zone. In addition, amphibians such as the water puppy and redwood salamander are common too. Birds such as the kingfisher, chickadee, towhee, and hummingbird thrive here as well.

The Canadian zone mammals include the mountain weasel, snowshoe hare, and several species of chipmunks. Conspicuous birds include the blue-fronted jay, mountain chickadee, hermit thrush, American dipper, and Townsend's solitaire. As one ascends into the Hudsonian zone, birds become scarcer. While the gray-crowned rosy finch is the only bird native to the high Arctic region, other bird species such as Anna's hummingbird and Clark's nutcracker. Principal mammals found in this region include the Sierra coney, white-tailed jackrabbit, and the bighorn sheep. As of April 2003, the bighorn sheep was listed as endangered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. The fauna found throughout several zones are the mule deer, coyote, mountain lion, northern flicker, and several species of hawk and sparrow.

Aquatic life in California thrives, from the state's mountain lakes and streams to the rocky Pacific coastline. Numerous trout species are found, among them rainbow, golden, and cutthroat. Migratory species of salmon are common as well. Deep-sea life forms include sea bass, yellowfin tuna, barracuda, and several types of whale. Native to the cliffs of northern California are seals, sea lions, and many types of shorebirds, including migratory species.

As of April 2003, 118 California animals were on the federal endangered list; 181 plants were listed as endangered or threatened. Endangered animals include the San Joaquin kitfox, Point Arena mountain beaver, Pacific pocket mouse, salt marsh harvest mouse, Morro Bay kangaroo rat (and five other species of kangaroo rat), Amargosa vole, California least tern, California condor, loggerhead shrike, San Clemente sage sparrow, San Francisco garter snake, five species of salamander, three species of chub, and two species of pupfish. Eleven butterflies are also endangered and two that are threatened are on the federal list. Among threatened animals are the coastal California gnatcatcher, Paiute cutthroat trout, southern sea otter, and northern spotted owl. California has a total of 290,821 acres (1,176.91 km) of National Wildlife Refuges. As of September 2010, 123 California animals were listed as either endangered or threatened on the federal list. Also, as of the same year, 178 species of California plants were listed either as endangered or threatened on this federal list.

The most prominent river system within California is formed by the Sacramento River and San Joaquin River, which are fed mostly by snowmelt from the west slope of the Sierra Nevada, and respectively drain the north and south halves of the Central Valley. The two rivers join in the Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta, flowing into the Pacific Ocean through San Francisco Bay. Many major tributaries feed into the Sacramento–San Joaquin system, including the Pit River, Feather River and Tuolumne River.

The Klamath and Trinity Rivers drain a large area in far northwestern California. The Eel River and Salinas River each drain portions of the California coast, north and south of San Francisco Bay, respectively. The Mojave River is the primary watercourse in the Mojave Desert, and the Santa Ana River drains much of the Transverse Ranges as it bisects Southern California. The Colorado River forms the state's southeast border with Arizona.

Most of California's major rivers are dammed as part of two massive water projects: the Central Valley Project, providing water for agriculture in the Central Valley, and the California State Water Project diverting water from Northern to Southern California. The state's coasts, rivers, and other bodies of water are regulated by the California Coastal Commission.

California is traditionally separated into Northern California and Southern California, divided by a straight border which runs across the state, separating the northern 48 counties from the southern 10 counties. Despite the persistence of the northern-southern divide, California is more precisely divided into many regions, multiple of which stretch across the northern-southern divide.

The state has 482 incorporated cities and towns, of which 460 are cities and 22 are towns. Under California law, the terms "city" and "town" are explicitly interchangeable; the name of an incorporated municipality in the state can either be "City of (Name)" or "Town of (Name)".

Sacramento became California's first incorporated city on February 27, 1850. San Jose, San Diego, and Benicia tied for California's second incorporated city, each receiving incorporation on March 27, 1850. Jurupa Valley became the state's most recent and 482nd incorporated municipality, on July 1, 2011.

The majority of these cities and towns are within one of five metropolitan areas: the Los Angeles Metropolitan Area, the San Francisco Bay Area, the Riverside-San Bernardino Area, the San Diego metropolitan area, or the Sacramento metropolitan area.

Nearly one out of every eight Americans lives in California. The United States Census Bureau reported that the population of California was 39,538,223 on April 1, 2020, a 6.13% increase since the 2010 census. The estimated state population in 2022 was 39.22 million. For over a century (1900–2020), California experienced steady population growth, adding an average of more than 300,000 people per year from 1940 onward. California's rate of growth began to slow by the 1990s, although it continued to experience population growth in the first two decades of the 21st century. The state experienced population declines in 2020 and 2021, attributable to declining birth rates, COVID-19 pandemic deaths, and less internal migration from other states to California.

The Greater Los Angeles Area is the second-largest metropolitan area in the United States (U.S.), while Los Angeles is the second-largest city in the U.S. Conversely, San Francisco is the most densely-populated city in California and one of the most densely populated cities in the U.S.. Also, Los Angeles County has held the title of most populous U.S. county for decades, and it alone is more populous than 42 U.S. states. Including Los Angeles, four of the top 20 most populous cities in the U.S. are in California: Los Angeles (2nd), San Diego (8th), San Jose (10th), and San Francisco (17th). The center of population of California is located four miles west-southwest of the city of Shafter, Kern County.

As of 2019, California ranked second among states by life expectancy, with a life expectancy of 80.9 years.

Starting in the year 2010, for the first time since the California Gold Rush, California-born residents made up the majority of the state's population. Along with the rest of the United States, California's immigration pattern has also shifted over the course of the late 2000s to early 2010s. Immigration from Latin American countries has dropped significantly with most immigrants now coming from Asia. In total for 2011, there were 277,304 immigrants. Fifty-seven percent came from Asian countries versus 22% from Latin American countries. Net immigration from Mexico, previously the most common country of origin for new immigrants, has dropped to zero / less than zero since more Mexican nationals are departing for their home country than immigrating.

The state's population of undocumented immigrants has been shrinking in recent years, due to increased enforcement and decreased job opportunities for lower-skilled workers. The number of migrants arrested attempting to cross the Mexican border in the Southwest decreased from a high of 1.1 million in 2005 to 367,000 in 2011. Despite these recent trends, illegal aliens constituted an estimated 7.3 percent of the state's population, the third highest percentage of any state in the country, totaling nearly 2.6 million. In particular, illegal immigrants tended to be concentrated in Los Angeles, Monterey, San Benito, Imperial, and Napa Counties—the latter four of which have significant agricultural industries that depend on manual labor. More than half of illegal immigrants originate from Mexico. The state of California and some California cities, including Los Angeles, Oakland and San Francisco, have adopted sanctuary policies.

According to HUD's 2022 Annual Homeless Assessment Report, there were an estimated 171,521 homeless people in California.

According to the United States Census Bureau in 2018 the population self-identified as (alone or in combination): 72.1% White (including Hispanic Whites), 36.8% non-Hispanic whites, 15.3% Asian, 6.5% Black or African American, 1.6% Native American and Alaska Native, 0.5% Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander, and 3.9% two or more races.

By ethnicity, in 2018 the population was 60.7% non-Hispanic (of any race) and 39.3% Hispanic or Latino (of any race). Hispanics are the largest single ethnic group in California. Non-Hispanic whites constituted 36.8% of the state's population. Californios are the Hispanic residents native to California, who make up the Spanish-speaking community that has existed in California since 1542, of varying Mexican American/Chicano, Criollo Spaniard, and Mestizo origin.

As of 2011, 75.1% of California's population younger than age 1 were minorities, meaning they had at least one parent who was not non-Hispanic white (white Hispanics are counted as minorities).

In terms of total numbers, California has the largest population of White Americans in the United States, an estimated 22,200,000 residents. The state has the 5th largest population of African Americans in the United States, an estimated 2,250,000 residents. California's Asian American population is estimated at 4.4 million, constituting a third of the nation's total. California's Native American population of 285,000 is the most of any state.

According to estimates from 2011, California has the largest minority population in the United States by numbers, making up 60% of the state population. Over the past 25 years, the population of non-Hispanic whites has declined, while Hispanic and Asian populations have grown. Between 1970 and 2011, non-Hispanic whites declined from 80% of the state's population to 40%, while Hispanics grew from 32% in 2000 to 38% in 2011. It is currently projected that Hispanics will rise to 49% of the population by 2060, primarily due to domestic births rather than immigration. With the decline of immigration from Latin America, Asian Americans now constitute the fastest growing racial/ethnic group in California; this growth is primarily driven by immigration from China, India and the Philippines, respectively.

Most of California's immigrant population are born in Mexico (3.9 million), the Philippines (825,200), China (768,400), India (556,500) and Vietnam (502,600).

California has the largest multiracial population in the United States. California has the highest rate of interracial marriage.

English serves as California's de jure and de facto official language. According to the 2021 American Community Survey conducted by the United States Census Bureau, 56.08% (20,763,638) of California residents age 5 and older spoke only English at home, while 43.92% spoke another language at home. 60.35% of people who speak a language other than English at home are able to speak English "well" or "very well", with this figure varying significantly across the different linguistic groups. Like most U.S. states (32 out of 50), California law enshrines English as its official language, and has done so since the passage of Proposition 63 by California voters in 1986. Various government agencies do, and are often required to, furnish documents in the various languages needed to reach their intended audiences.

Spanish is the most commonly spoken language in California, behind English, spoken by 28.18% (10,434,308) of the population (in 2021). The Spanish language has been spoken in California since 1542 and is deeply intertwined with California's cultural landscape and history. Spanish was the official administrative language of California through the Spanish and Mexican eras, until 1848. Following the U.S. Conquest of California and the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo, the U.S. Government guaranteed the rights of Spanish speaking Californians. The first Constitution of California was written in both languages at the Monterey Constitutional Convention of 1849 and protected the rights of Spanish speakers to use their language in government proceedings and mandating that all government documents be published in both English and Spanish.

Despite the initial recognition of Spanish by early American governments in California, the revised 1879 constitution stripped the rights of Spanish speakers and the official status of Spanish. The growth of the English-only movement by the mid-20th century led to the passage of 1986 California Proposition 63, which enshrined English as the only official language in California and ended Spanish language instruction in schools. 2016 California Proposition 58 reversed the prohibition on bilingual education, though there are still many barriers to the proliferation of Spanish bilingual education, including a shortage of teachers and lack of funding. The government of California has since made efforts to promote Spanish language access and bilingual education, as have private educational institutions in California. Many businesses in California promote the usage of Spanish by their employees, to better serve both California's Hispanic population and the larger Spanish-speaking world.

California has historically been one of the most linguistically diverse areas in the world, with more than 70 indigenous languages derived from 64 root languages in six language families. A survey conducted between 2007 and 2009 identified 23 different indigenous languages among California farmworkers. All of California's indigenous languages are endangered, although there are now efforts toward language revitalization. California has the highest concentration nationwide of Chinese, Vietnamese and Punjabi speakers.

As a result of the state's increasing diversity and migration from other areas across the country and around the globe, linguists began noticing a noteworthy set of emerging characteristics of spoken American English in California since the late 20th century. This variety, known as California English, has a vowel shift and several other phonological processes that are different from varieties of American English used in other regions of the United States.

The largest religious denominations by number of adherents as a percentage of California's population in 2014 were the Catholic Church with 28 percent, Evangelical Protestants with 20 percent, and Mainline Protestants with 10 percent. Together, all kinds of Protestants accounted for 32 percent. Those unaffiliated with any religion represented 27 percent of the population. The breakdown of other religions is 1% Muslim, 2% Hindu and 2% Buddhist. This is a change from 2008, when the population identified their religion with the Catholic Church with 31 percent; Evangelical Protestants with 18 percent; and Mainline Protestants with 14 percent. In 2008, those unaffiliated with any religion represented 21 percent of the population. The breakdown of other religions in 2008 was 0.5% Muslim, 1% Hindu and 2% Buddhist. The American Jewish Year Book placed the total Jewish population of California at about 1,194,190 in 2006. According to the Association of Religion Data Archives (ARDA) the largest denominations by adherents in 2010 were the Catholic Church with 10,233,334; The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints with 763,818; and the Southern Baptist Convention with 489,953.

The first priests to come to California were Catholic missionaries from Spain. Catholics founded 21 missions along the California coast, as well as the cities of Los Angeles and San Francisco. California continues to have a large Catholic population due to the large numbers of Mexicans and Central Americans living within its borders. California has twelve dioceses and two archdioceses, the Archdiocese of Los Angeles and the Archdiocese of San Francisco, the former being the largest archdiocese in the United States.

A Pew Research Center survey revealed that California is somewhat less religious than the rest of the states: 62 percent of Californians say they are "absolutely certain" of their belief in God, while in the nation 71 percent say so. The survey also revealed 48 percent of Californians say religion is "very important", compared to 56 percent nationally.

The culture of California is a Western culture and most clearly has its modern roots in the culture of the United States, but also, historically, many Hispanic Californio and Mexican influences. As a border and coastal state, California culture has been greatly influenced by several large immigrant populations, especially those from Latin America and Asia.

California has long been a subject of interest in the public mind and has often been promoted by its boosters as a kind of paradise. In the early 20th century, fueled by the efforts of state and local boosters, many Americans saw the Golden State as an ideal resort destination, sunny and dry all year round with easy access to the ocean and mountains. In the 1960s, popular music groups such as the Beach Boys promoted the image of Californians as laid-back, tanned beach-goers.

The California Gold Rush of the 1850s is still seen as a symbol of California's economic style, which tends to generate technology, social, entertainment, and economic fads and booms and related busts.

Hollywood and the rest of the Los Angeles area is a major global center for entertainment, with the U.S. film industry's "Big Five" major film studios (Columbia, Disney, Paramount, Universal, and Warner Bros.) as well as many minor film studios being based in or around the area. Many animation studios are also headquartered in the state.

The four major American television commercial broadcast networks (ABC, CBS, NBC, and Fox) as well as other networks all have production facilities and offices in the state. All the four major commercial broadcast networks, plus the two major Spanish-language networks (Telemundo and Univision) each have at least three owned-and-operated TV stations in California, including at least one in Los Angeles and at least one in San Francisco.

One of the oldest radio stations in the United States still in existence, KCBS (AM) in the San Francisco Bay Area, was founded in 1909. Universal Music Group, one of the "Big Four" record labels, is based in Santa Monica, while Warner Records is based in Los Angeles. Many independent record labels, such as Mind of a Genius Records, are also headquartered in the state. California is also the birthplace of several international music genres, including the Bakersfield sound, Bay Area thrash metal, alternative rock, g-funk, nu metal, glam metal, thrash metal, psychedelic rock, stoner rock, punk rock, hardcore punk, metalcore, pop punk, surf music, third wave ska, west coast hip hop, west coast jazz, jazz rap, and many other genres. Other genres such as pop rock, indie rock, hard rock, hip hop, pop, rock, rockabilly, country, heavy metal, grunge, new wave and disco were popularized in the state. In addition, many British bands, such as Led Zeppelin, Deep Purple, Black Sabbath, and the Rolling Stones settled in the state after becoming internationally famous.

As the home of Silicon Valley, the Bay Area is the headquarters of several prominent internet media, social media, and other technology companies. Three of the "Big Five" technology companies (Apple, Meta, and Google) are based in the area as well as other services such as Netflix, Pandora Radio, Twitter, Yahoo!, and YouTube. Other prominent companies that are headquartered here include HP inc. and Intel. Microsoft and Amazon also have offices in the area.

California, particularly Southern California, is considered the birthplace of modern car culture.

Several fast food, fast casual, and casual dining chains were also founded California, including some that have since expanded internationally like California Pizza Kitchen, Denny's, IHOP, McDonald's, Panda Express, and Taco Bell.

California has nineteen major professional sports league franchises, far more than any other state. The San Francisco Bay Area has six major league teams spread in its three major cities: San Francisco, San Jose, and Oakland, while the Greater Los Angeles Area is home to ten major league franchises. San Diego and Sacramento each have one major league team. The NFL Super Bowl has been hosted in California 12 times at five different stadiums: Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum, the Rose Bowl, Stanford Stadium, Levi's Stadium, and San Diego's Qualcomm Stadium. A thirteenth, Super Bowl LVI, was held at Sofi Stadium in Inglewood on February 13, 2022.

California has long had many respected collegiate sports programs. California is home to the oldest college bowl game, the annual Rose Bowl, among others.

The NFL has three teams in the state: the Los Angeles Rams, Los Angeles Chargers, and San Francisco 49ers.

MLB has five teams in the state: the San Francisco Giants, Oakland Athletics, Los Angeles Dodgers, Los Angeles Angels, and San Diego Padres.

The NBA has four teams in the state: the Golden State Warriors, Los Angeles Clippers, Los Angeles Lakers, and Sacramento Kings. Additionally, the WNBA also has one team in the state: the Los Angeles Sparks.

The NHL has three teams in the state: the Anaheim Ducks, Los Angeles Kings, and San Jose Sharks.

MLS has three teams in the state: the Los Angeles Galaxy, San Jose Earthquakes, and Los Angeles Football Club.

MLR has one team in the state: the San Diego Legion.

California is the only U.S. state to have hosted both the Summer and Winter Olympics. The 1932 and 1984 summer games were held in Los Angeles. Squaw Valley Ski Resort in the Lake Tahoe region hosted the 1960 Winter Olympics. Los Angeles will host the 2028 Summer Olympics, marking the fourth time that California will have hosted the Olympic Games. Multiple games during the 1994 FIFA World Cup took place in California, with the Rose Bowl hosting eight matches (including the final), while Stanford Stadium hosted six matches.

In addition to the Olympic games, California also hosts the California State Games.

Many sports, such as surfing, snowboarding, and skateboarding, were invented in California, while others like volleyball, beach soccer, and skiing were popularized in the state.

Other sports that are big in the state include golf, rodeo, tennis, mountain climbing, marathon running, horse racing, bowling, mixed martial arts, boxing, and motorsports, especially NASCAR and Formula One.

California has the most school students in the country, with over 6.2 million in the 2005–06 school year, giving California more students in school than 36 states have in total population and one of the highest projected enrollments in the country.
Public secondary education consists of high schools that teach elective courses in trades, languages, and liberal arts with tracks for gifted, college-bound and industrial arts students. California's public educational system is supported by a unique constitutional amendment that requires a minimum annual funding level for grades K–12 and community colleges that grows with the economy and student enrollment figures.

In 2016, California's K–12 public school per-pupil spending was ranked 22nd in the nation ($11,500 per student vs. $11,800 for the U.S. average).

For 2012, California's K–12 public schools ranked 48th in the number of employees per student, at 0.102 (the U.S. average was 0.137), while paying the 7th most per employee, $49,000 (the U.S. average was $39,000).

A 2007 study concluded that California's public school system was "broken" in that it suffered from overregulation.

California public postsecondary education is organized into three separate systems:

California is also home to notable private universities such as Stanford University, the California Institute of Technology (Caltech), the University of Southern California, the Claremont Colleges, Santa Clara University, Loyola Marymount University, the University of San Diego, the University of San Francisco, Chapman University, Pepperdine University, Occidental College, and University of the Pacific, among numerous other private colleges and universities, including many religious and special-purpose institutions. California has a particularly high density of arts colleges, including the California College of the Arts, California Institute of the Arts, San Francisco Art Institute, Art Center College of Design, and Academy of Art University, among others.

California's economy ranks among the largest in the world. As of 2022, the gross state product (GSP) was $3.6 trillion ($92,190 per capita), the largest in the United States. California is responsible for one seventh of the nation's gross domestic product (GDP). As of 2018, California's nominal GDP is larger than all but four countries (the United States, China, Japan, and Germany). In terms of purchasing power parity (PPP), it is larger than all but eight countries (the United States, China, India, Japan, Germany, Russia, Brazil, and Indonesia). California's economy is larger than Africa and Australia and is almost as large as South America. The state recorded total, non-farm employment of 16,677,800 as of September 2021 among 966,224 employer establishments.

As the largest and second-largest U.S. ports respectively, the Port of Los Angeles and the Port of Long Beach in Southern California collectively play a pivotal role in the global supply chain, together hauling in about 40% of all imports to the United States by TEU volume. The Port of Oakland and Port of Hueneme are the 10th and 26th largest seaports in the U.S., respectively, by number of TEUs handled.

The five largest sectors of employment in California are trade, transportation, and utilities; government; professional and business services; education and health services; and leisure and hospitality. In output, the five largest sectors are financial services, followed by trade, transportation, and utilities; education and health services; government; and manufacturing. California has an unemployment rate of 3.9% as of September 2022.

California's economy is dependent on trade and international related commerce accounts for about one-quarter of the state's economy. In 2008, California exported $144 billion worth of goods, up from $134 billion in 2007 and $127 billion in 2006.
Computers and electronic products are California's top export, accounting for 42 percent of all the state's exports in 2008.

Agriculture is an important sector in California's economy. According to the USDA in 2011, the three largest California agricultural products by value were milk and cream, shelled almonds, and grapes. Farming-related sales more than quadrupled over the past three decades, from $7.3 billion in 1974 to nearly $31 billion in 2004. This increase has occurred despite a 15 percent decline in acreage devoted to farming during the period, and water supply suffering from chronic instability. Factors contributing to the growth in sales-per-acre include more intensive use of active farmlands and technological improvements in crop production. In 2008, California's 81,500 farms and ranches generated $36.2 billion products revenue. In 2011, that number grew to $43.5 billion products revenue. The agriculture sector accounts for two percent of the state's GDP and employs around three percent of its total workforce.

Per capita GDP in 2007 was $38,956, ranking eleventh in the nation. Per capita income varies widely by geographic region and profession. The Central Valley is the most impoverished, with migrant farm workers making less than minimum wage. According to a 2005 report by the Congressional Research Service, the San Joaquin Valley was characterized as one of the most economically depressed regions in the United States, on par with the region of Appalachia.

Using the supplemental poverty measure, California has a poverty rate of 23.5%, the highest of any state in the country. However, using the official measure the poverty rate was only 13.3% as of 2017. Many coastal cities include some of the wealthiest per-capita areas in the United States. The high-technology sectors in Northern California, specifically Silicon Valley, in Santa Clara and San Mateo counties, have emerged from the economic downturn caused by the dot-com bust.

In 2019, there were 1,042,027 millionaire households in the state, more than any other state in the nation. In 2010, California residents were ranked first among the states with the best average credit score of 754.

State spending increased from $56 billion in 1998 to $127 billion in 2011. California has the third highest per capita spending on welfare among the states, as well as the highest spending on welfare at $6.67 billion. In January 2011, California's total debt was at least $265 billion. On June 27, 2013, Governor Jerry Brown signed a balanced budget (no deficit) for the state, its first in decades; however, the state's debt remains at $132 billion.

With the passage of Proposition 30 in 2012 and Proposition 55 in 2016, California now levies a 13.3% maximum marginal income tax rate with ten tax brackets, ranging from 1% at the bottom tax bracket of $0 annual individual income to 13.3% for annual individual income over $1,000,000 (though the top brackets are only temporary until Proposition 55 expires at the end of 2030). While Proposition 30 also enacted a minimum state sales tax of 7.5%, this sales tax increase was not extended by Proposition 55 and reverted to a previous minimum state sales tax rate of 7.25% in 2017. Local governments can and do levy additional sales taxes in addition to this minimum rate.

All real property is taxable annually; the ad valorem tax is based on the property's fair market value at the time of purchase or the value of new construction. Property tax increases are capped at 2% annually or the rate of inflation (whichever is lower), per Proposition 13.

Because it is the most populous state in the United States, California is one of the country's largest users of energy. The state has extensive hydro-electric energy generation facilities, however, moving water is the single largest energy use in the state. Also, due to high energy rates, conservation mandates, mild weather in the largest population centers and strong environmental movement, its per capita energy use is one of the smallest of any state in the United States. Due to the high electricity demand, California imports more electricity than any other state, primarily hydroelectric power from states in the Pacific Northwest (via Path 15 and Path 66) and coal- and natural gas-fired production from the desert Southwest via Path 46.

The state's crude oil and natural gas deposits are located in the Central Valley and along the coast, including the large Midway-Sunset Oil Field. Natural gas-fired power plants typically account for more than one-half of state electricity generation.

As a result of the state's strong environmental movement, California has some of the most aggressive renewable energy goals in the United States. Senate Bill SB 1020 (the Clean Energy, Jobs and Affordability Act of 2022) commits the state to running its operations on clean, renewable energy resources by 2035, and SB 1203 also requires the state to achieve net-zero operations for all agencies. Currently, several solar power plants such as the Solar Energy Generating Systems facility are located in the Mojave Desert. California's wind farms include Altamont Pass, San Gorgonio Pass, and Tehachapi Pass. The Tehachapi area is also where the Tehachapi Energy Storage Project is located. Several dams across the state provide hydro-electric power. It would be possible to convert the total supply to 100% renewable energy, including heating, cooling and mobility, by 2050.

California has one major nuclear power plant (Diablo Canyon) in operation. The San Onofre nuclear plant was shut down in 2013. More than 1,700 tons of radioactive waste are stored at San Onofre, and sit on the coast where there is a record of past tsunamis. Voters banned the approval of new nuclear power plants since the late 1970s because of concerns over radioactive waste disposal. In addition, several cities such as Oakland, Berkeley and Davis have declared themselves as nuclear-free zones.

California's vast terrain is connected by an extensive system of controlled-access highways ('freeways'), limited-access roads ('expressways'), and highways. California is known for its car culture, giving California's cities a reputation for severe traffic congestion. Construction and maintenance of state roads and statewide transportation planning are primarily the responsibility of the California Department of Transportation, nicknamed "Caltrans". The rapidly growing population of the state is straining all of its transportation networks, and California has some of the worst roads in the United States. The Reason Foundation's 19th Annual Report on the Performance of State Highway Systems ranked California's highways the third-worst of any state, with Alaska second, and Rhode Island first.

The state has been a pioneer in road construction. One of the state's more visible landmarks, the Golden Gate Bridge, was the longest suspension bridge main span in the world at 4,200 feet (1,300 m) between 1937 (when it opened) and 1964. With its orange paint and panoramic views of the bay, this highway bridge is a popular tourist attraction and also accommodates pedestrians and bicyclists. The San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge (often abbreviated the "Bay Bridge"), completed in 1936, transports about 280,000 vehicles per day on two-decks. Its two sections meet at Yerba Buena Island through the world's largest diameter transportation bore tunnel, at 76 feet (23 m) wide by 58 feet (18 m) high. The Arroyo Seco Parkway, connecting Los Angeles and Pasadena, opened in 1940 as the first freeway in the Western United States. It was later extended south to the Four Level Interchange in downtown Los Angeles, regarded as the first stack interchange ever built.

The California Highway Patrol is the largest statewide police agency in the United States in employment with more than 10,000 employees. They are responsible for providing any police-sanctioned service to anyone on California's state-maintained highways and on state property.

By the end of 2021, 30,610,058 people in California held a California Department of Motor Vehicles-issued driver's licenses or state identification card, and there were 36,229,205 registered vehicles, including 25,643,076 automobiles, 853,368 motorcycles, 8,981,787 trucks and trailers, and 121,716 miscellaneous vehicles (including historical vehicles and farm equipment).

Los Angeles International Airport (LAX), the 4th busiest airport in the world in 2018, and San Francisco International Airport (SFO), the 25th busiest airport in the world in 2018, are major hubs for trans-Pacific and transcontinental traffic. There are about a dozen important commercial airports and many more general aviation airports throughout the state.

Inter-city rail travel is provided by Amtrak California; the three routes, the Capitol Corridor, Pacific Surfliner, and San Joaquin, are funded by Caltrans. These services are the busiest intercity rail lines in the United States outside the Northeast Corridor and ridership is continuing to set records. The routes are becoming increasingly popular over flying, especially on the LAX-SFO route. Integrated subway and light rail networks are found in Los Angeles (Metro Rail) and San Francisco (MUNI Metro). Light rail systems are also found in San Jose (VTA), San Diego (San Diego Trolley), Sacramento (RT Light Rail), and Northern San Diego County (Sprinter). Furthermore, commuter rail networks serve the San Francisco Bay Area (ACE, BART, Caltrain, SMART), Greater Los Angeles (Metrolink), and San Diego County (Coaster).

The California High-Speed Rail Authority was authorized in 1996 by the state legislature to plan a California High-Speed Rail system to put before the voters. The plan they devised, 2008 California Proposition 1A, connecting all the major population centers in the state, was approved by the voters at the November 2008 general election. The first phase of construction was begun in 2015, and the first segment 171 miles (275 km) long, is planned to be put into operation by the end of 2030. Planning and work on the rest of the system is continuing, with funding for completing it is an ongoing issue. California's 2023 integrated passenger rail master plan includes a high speed rail system.

Nearly all counties operate bus lines, and many cities operate their own city bus lines as well. Intercity bus travel is provided by Greyhound, Megabus, and Amtrak Thruway Motorcoach.

California's interconnected water system is the world's largest, managing over 40,000,000 acre-feet (49 km) of water per year, centered on six main systems of aqueducts and infrastructure projects. Water use and conservation in California is a politically divisive issue, as the state experiences periodic droughts and has to balance the demands of its large agricultural and urban sectors, especially in the arid southern portion of the state. The state's widespread redistribution of water also invites the frequent scorn of environmentalists.

The California Water Wars, a conflict between Los Angeles and the Owens Valley over water rights, is one of the most well-known examples of the struggle to secure adequate water supplies. Former California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger said: "We've been in crisis for quite some time because we're now 38 million people and not anymore 18 million people like we were in the late 60s. So it developed into a battle between environmentalists and farmers and between the south and the north and between rural and urban. And everyone has been fighting for the last four decades about water."

The capital city of California is Sacramento.
The state is organized into three branches of government—the executive branch consisting of the governor and the other independently elected constitutional officers; the legislative branch consisting of the Assembly and Senate; and the judicial branch consisting of the Supreme Court of California and lower courts. The state also allows ballot propositions: direct participation of the electorate by initiative, referendum, recall, and ratification. Before the passage of Proposition 14 in 2010, California allowed each political party to choose whether to have a closed primary or a primary where only party members and independents vote. After June 8, 2010, when Proposition 14 was approved, excepting only the United States president and county central committee offices, all candidates in the primary elections are listed on the ballot with their preferred party affiliation, but they are not the official nominee of that party. At the primary election, the two candidates with the top votes will advance to the general election regardless of party affiliation. If at a special primary election, one candidate receives more than 50% of all the votes cast, they are elected to fill the vacancy and no special general election will be held.

The California executive branch consists of the governor and seven other elected constitutional officers: lieutenant governor, attorney general, secretary of state, state controller, state treasurer, insurance commissioner, and state superintendent of public instruction. They serve four-year terms and may be re-elected only once.

The many California state agencies that are under the governor's cabinet are grouped together to form cabinet-level entities that are referred to by government officials as "superagencies". Those departments that are directly under the other independently elected officers work separately from these superagencies.

The California State Legislature consists of a 40-member Senate and 80-member Assembly. Senators serve four-year terms and Assembly members two. Members of the Assembly are subject to term limits of six terms, and members of the Senate are subject to term limits of three terms.

California's legal system is explicitly based upon English common law but carries many features from Spanish civil law, such as community property. California's prison population grew from 25,000 in 1980 to over 170,000 in 2007. Capital punishment is a legal form of punishment and the state has the largest "Death Row" population in the country (though Oklahoma and Texas are far more active in carrying out executions). California has performed 13 executions since 1976, with the last being in 2006.

California's judiciary system is the largest in the United States with a total of 1,600 judges (the federal system has only about 840). At the apex is the seven-member Supreme Court of California, while the California Courts of Appeal serve as the primary appellate courts and the California Superior Courts serve as the primary trial courts. Justices of the Supreme Court and Courts of Appeal are appointed by the governor, but are subject to retention by the electorate every 12 years.

The administration of the state's court system is controlled by the Judicial Council, composed of the chief justice of the California Supreme Court, 14 judicial officers, four representatives from the State Bar of California, and one member from each house of the state legislature.

In fiscal year 2020–2021, the state judiciary's 2,000 judicial officers and 18,000 judicial branch employees processed approximately 4.4 million cases.

California has an extensive system of local government that manages public functions throughout the state. Like most states, California is divided into counties, of which there are 58 (including San Francisco) covering the entire state. Most urbanized areas are incorporated as cities. School districts, which are independent of cities and counties, handle public education. Many other functions, such as fire protection and water supply, especially in unincorporated areas, are handled by special districts.

California is divided into 58 counties. Per Article 11, Section 1, of the Constitution of California, they are the legal subdivisions of the state. The county government provides countywide services such as law enforcement, jails, elections and voter registration, vital records, property assessment and records, tax collection, public health, health care, social services, libraries, flood control, fire protection, animal control, agricultural regulations, building inspections, ambulance services, and education departments in charge of maintaining statewide standards. In addition, the county serves as the local government for all unincorporated areas. Each county is governed by an elected board of supervisors.

Incorporated cities and towns in California are either charter or general-law municipalities. General-law municipalities owe their existence to state law and are consequently governed by it; charter municipalities are governed by their own city or town charters. Municipalities incorporated in the 19th century tend to be charter municipalities. All ten of the state's most populous cities are charter cities. Most small cities have a council–manager form of government, where the elected city council appoints a city manager to supervise the operations of the city. Some larger cities have a directly elected mayor who oversees the city government. In many council-manager cities, the city council selects one of its members as a mayor, sometimes rotating through the council membership—but this type of mayoral position is primarily ceremonial. The Government of San Francisco is the only consolidated city-county in California, where both the city and county governments have been merged into one unified jurisdiction.

About 1,102 school districts, independent of cities and counties, handle California's public education. California school districts may be organized as elementary districts, high school districts, unified school districts combining elementary and high school grades, or community college districts.

There are about 3,400 special districts in California. A special district, defined by California Government Code § 16271(d) as "any agency of the state for the local performance of governmental or proprietary functions within limited boundaries", provides a limited range of services within a defined geographic area. The geographic area of a special district can spread across multiple cities or counties, or could consist of only a portion of one. Most of California's special districts are single-purpose districts, and provide one service.

The state of California sends 52 members to the House of Representatives, the nation's largest congressional state delegation. Consequently, California also has the largest number of electoral votes in national presidential elections, with 54. The former speaker of the House of Representatives is the representative of California's 20th district, Kevin McCarthy.

California is represented by U.S. senator Alex Padilla, a native and former secretary of state of California, its class 1 Senate seat is currently vacant following the death of Dianne Feinstein. Former U.S. senator Kamala Harris, a native, former district attorney from San Francisco, former attorney general of California, resigned on January 18, 2021, to assume her role as the current Vice President of the United States. In the 1992 U.S. Senate election, California became the first state to elect a Senate delegation entirely composed of women, due to the victories of Feinstein and Barbara Boxer. Set to follow the Vice President-Elect, Gov. Newsom appointed Secretary of State Alex Padilla to finish the rest of Harris's term which ends in 2022, Padilla has vowed to run for the full term in that election cycle. Padilla was sworn in on January 20, 2021, the same day as the inauguration of Joe Biden as well as Harris.

In California, as of 2009, the U.S. Department of Defense had a total of 117,806 active duty servicemembers of which 88,370 were Sailors or Marines, 18,339 were Airmen, and 11,097 were Soldiers, with 61,365 Department of Defense civilian employees. Additionally, there were a total of 57,792 Reservists and Guardsman in California.

In 2010, Los Angeles County was the largest origin of military recruits in the United States by county, with 1,437 individuals enlisting in the military. However, as of 2002, Californians were relatively under-represented in the military as a proportion to its population.

In 2000, California, had 2,569,340 veterans of United States military service: 504,010 served in World War II, 301,034 in the Korean War, 754,682 during the Vietnam War, and 278,003 during 1990–2000 (including the Persian Gulf War). As of 2010, there were 1,942,775 veterans living in California, of which 1,457,875 served during a period of armed conflict, and just over four thousand served before World War II (the largest population of this group of any state).

California's military forces consist of the Army and Air National Guard, the naval and state military reserve (militia), and the California Cadet Corps.

On August 5, 1950, a nuclear-capable United States Air Force Boeing B-29 Superfortress bomber carrying a nuclear bomb crashed shortly after takeoff from Fairfield-Suisun Air Force Base. Brigadier General Robert F. Travis, command pilot of the bomber, was among the dead.

California has an idiosyncratic political culture compared to the rest of the country, and is sometimes regarded as a trendsetter. In socio-cultural mores and national politics, Californians are perceived as more liberal than other Americans, especially those who live in the inland states. In the 2016 United States presidential election, California had the third highest percentage of Democratic votes behind the District of Columbia and Hawaii. In the 2020 United States presidential election, it had the 6th highest behind the District of Columbia, Vermont, Massachusetts, Maryland, and Hawaii. According to the Cook Political Report, California contains five of the 15 most Democratic congressional districts in the United States.

Among the political idiosyncrasies, California was the second state to recall their state governor (the first state being North Dakota in 1921), the second state to legalize abortion, and the only state to ban marriage for gay couples twice by vote (including Proposition 8 in 2008). Voters also passed Proposition 71 in 2004 to fund stem cell research, making California the second state to legalize stem cell research after New Jersey, and Proposition 14 in 2010 to completely change the state's primary election process. California has also experienced disputes over water rights; and a tax revolt, culminating with the passage of Proposition 13 in 1978, limiting state property taxes. California voters have rejected affirmative action on multiple occasions, most recently in November 2020.

The state's trend towards the Democratic Party and away from the Republican Party can be seen in state elections. From 1899 to 1939, California had Republican governors. Since 1990, California has generally elected Democratic candidates to federal, state and local offices, including current Governor Gavin Newsom; however, the state has elected Republican Governors, though many of its Republican Governors, such as Arnold Schwarzenegger, tend to be considered moderate Republicans and more centrist than the national party.

Several political movements have advocated for California independence. The California National Party and the California Freedom Coalition both advocate for California independence along the lines of progressivism and civic nationalism. The Yes California movement attempted to organize an independence referendum via ballot initiative for 2019, which was then postponed.

The Democrats also now hold a supermajority in both houses of the state legislature. There are 62 Democrats and 18 Republicans in the Assembly; and 32 Democrats and 8 Republicans in the Senate.

The trend towards the Democratic Party is most obvious in presidential elections. From 1952 through 1988, California was a Republican leaning state, with the party carrying the state's electoral votes in nine of ten elections, with 1964 as the exception. Southern California Republicans Richard Nixon and Ronald Reagan were both elected twice as the 37th and 40th U.S. Presidents, respectively. However, Democrats have won all of California's electoral votes for the last eight elections, starting in 1992.

In the United States House, the Democrats held a 34–19 edge in the CA delegation of the 110th United States Congress in 2007. As the result of gerrymandering, the districts in California were usually dominated by one or the other party, and few districts were considered competitive. In 2008, Californians passed Proposition 20 to empower a 14-member independent citizen commission to redraw districts for both local politicians and Congress. After the 2012 elections, when the new system took effect, Democrats gained four seats and held a 38–15 majority in the delegation. Following the 2018 midterm House elections, Democrats won 46 out of 53 congressional house seats in California, leaving Republicans with seven.

In general, Democratic strength is centered in the populous coastal regions of the Los Angeles metropolitan area and the San Francisco Bay Area. Republican strength is still greatest in eastern parts of the state. Orange County had remained largely Republican until the 2016 and 2018 elections, in which a majority of the county's votes were cast for Democratic candidates. One study ranked Berkeley, Oakland, Inglewood and San Francisco in the top 20 most liberal American cities; and Bakersfield, Orange, Escondido, Garden Grove, and Simi Valley in the top 20 most conservative cities.

In October 2022, out of the 26,876,800 people eligible to vote, 21,940,274 people were registered to vote. Of the people registered, the three largest registered groups were Democrats (10,283,258), Republicans (5,232,094), and No Party Preference (4,943,696). Los Angeles County had the largest number of registered Democrats (2,996,565) and Republicans (958,851) of any county in the state.

California retains the death penalty, though it has not been used since 2006. There is currently a gubernatorial hold on executions. Authorized methods of execution include the gas chamber.

California has region twinning arrangements with:

37°N 120°W / 37°N 120°W / 37; -120 (State of California)

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 ADA Compliance in

ADA Compliance For the Masses

ADA compliance is short for the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). But technically, ADA Compliance refers to the modification of the architectural or structural elements of buildings and facilities designed for persons with handicaps. Although ADA compliant activities may include changes to a facility\'s exterior, many businesses and organizations prefer to focus their ADA compliance efforts on the inside of the facility. In other words, ADA compliant activities usually mean alterations to the interior of the facility, rather than the exterior. But ADA compliance really means much more than simply making changes or adjustments to make a facility more accessible.

ADA compliance is actually a legal requirement for almost all U.S. residents and visitors who are not otherwise prohibited from entering or remaining within a public accommodation. In order to meet this legal requirement, most organizations and businesses now have well developed procedures on how to make changes in their facilities without running afoul of ADA regulations. In fact, a large number of companies now have ADA compliance programs or policies as part of their general public accommodation planning and policy development. These specialized policies provide general guidelines on how to ensure that the various services and amenities provided by a public accommodation are made easily accessible to all individuals who might be disabled.

A great deal of emphasis has been placed on ADA compliance in the last decade because of the increasing presence of individuals with disabilities in the workforce. According to the American Psychological Association, disability impacts nearly one in five American adults, and almost half of these adults are women. Individuals with disabilities often face unemployment and a variety of barriers to gain employment. Therefore, it is not surprising that disability-based ADA compliance is an important part of every business\'s or organization\'s public accommodation planning and policy development.

Businesses and organizations have developed ADA compliant website content in a variety of fields, such as advertising, communications, employee relations, financial services, healthcare, hospitality, legal, marketing, and technology. In each of these fields, a variety of websites are available for ADA compliant portal access. Some of the most popular websites for ADA compliance include: The White House ADA Website, which provides a plethora of information on the federal government\'s ADA website; The U.S. Department of Education\'s Office of Fair Housing and equal opportunity policies, which provides extensive information on housing law regarding accessibility for disabled individuals; The Centers for Medicare Services\' Medicare Accessibility Center, which provides accessible home page information on various Medicare issues pertaining to the law. Several state governments provide similar ADA compliant websites, as well. Most business organizations retain local ADA office staff to provide ADA assistance at meetings and seminars. You may also contact local government agencies to find out what ADA compliance requirements apply to your particular area.

In addition to creating ADA compliant websites, organizations and businesses must also take additional steps to become more accessible to individuals with disabilities. ADA Compliance Kit is a series of thirteen kits, which include comprehensive guidebooks and pamphlets that explain the legal standards governing ADA compliance. These documents provide detailed descriptions of the various types of accommodations that are required to make people with various types of disabilities able to become wheelchair accessible or use devices like walkers or scooters. Individuals who are interested in obtaining ADA training should also check their local government offices to see if they require any training or other assistance to achieve ADA compliance.

The guidelines describe the format of the Kit and give details on the accessibility of web content and other written materials. The Web Content Accessibility Guidelines outline four steps that should be followed to ensure ADA compliance. Once these four steps have been completed, individuals and businesses can apply for ADA approval.

In order to successfully complete the application process, it is necessary to obtain a letter of authorization from an individual with a disability. Individuals and businesses should not attempt to complete the application without the proper forms. A copy of the letter of authorization is then included on the ADA compliant website. To make websites more accessible for people with disabilities, many companies also make their website content accessible by using Braille fonts instead of full color. Braille text makes websites easy to read for most people. Using this option helps individuals who cannot see print to easily access websites.

ADA compliance requires organizations to take action. Without ADA compliance, individuals with disabilities will not be able to fully participate in American society. ADA compliance can be achieved by contacting the local government agencies and by ensuring that all regulations are met. Individuals who need assistance with getting ready for ADA compliance should also check the government\'s ADA website. Websites of state and local government agencies are also great sources for information on ADA compliance and tips for achieving ADA compliance.

 Asphalt Patching in

Asphalt Patching is an efficient method used for repairing small sections of asphalt pavement by replace the damaged material with new asphalt only to restore its full structural strength without requiring repaving or resurfacing. This process also reduces the required amount of paving necessary and the associated costs, while increasing the durability of the pavement. This is beneficial to business owners, who may have limited budgets. It is also beneficial to local communities because it increases safety for everyone who walks or drives on the paved road.

Asphalt Patching - Keep Your Garage Looking Great and Save Money

A wide range of materials are used in asphalt patching, such as asphalt and concrete, which have different advantages over synthetic interlocking pavement mixes. Asphalt is typically the chosen material because it is the most commonly used for industrial applications, including industrial, commercial, and residential streets. Concrete, on the other hand, is used in residential neighborhoods and is relatively cheaper than asphalt. When deciding upon what material should be used, it is important that you contact an experienced asphalt paving contractor who can advise you about your particular needs. To learn more about asphalt patching, contact a paving contractor in your area today.

Most asphalt patches replace one or both of the damaged pavement panels. Depending on the severity of the damage, the repaired area may include a medallion or curb accent, which are designed to visually define the repaired section of pavement. A small curb accent, which is typically made of steel or aluminum, is typically added to the end of the repaired section of pavement to visually soften the contrast between the adjacent roadway and the adjacent sidewalk or curb. The amount of curb accent required will depend upon the severity of the damage and the length of time it will take for the repair to be completed.

Not all asphalt paving requires the replacement of damaged panels. In some cases, the damaged asphalt pavement simply needs to be repaired with a different style of asphalt. When a repair becomes necessary, contact an experienced asphalt paving contractor to find out what kind of materials are available and how much each cost. In many cases, the repair is usually cost-effective when compared to ripping up and replacing the panels. If the repair involves new asphalt, make sure to choose a company that uses high quality, fully patched asphalt that is manufactured by a reputable provider.

Another type of asphalt paving project involves leveling. In some cases, the problem is not a flat spot; sometimes it is a uneven surface. Regardless of the situation, most asphalt pavements require some leveling before they\'re ready for use. Because it costs so much to rip up and replace asphalt pavements, most property owners avoid tearing up and replacing their asphalt pavements if at all possible. If the area doesn\'t need to be leveled completely, repave the area. If the problem lies in the leveling of the paved surface, contact a reputable asphalt paving company to find out what products they recommend for this job.

Parking lots face unique problems that other pavement areas don\'t. In addition to tearing up and replacing asphalt pavement, parking lots may also need to be repaired or replaced with a variety of materials. The first thing you may want to consider for your asphalt pavement replacement project is the addition of a new parking lot sealer. Parking lot sealants are specially designed for asphalt pavements and provide the additional protection that asphalt parking lots need. Depending on your parking lot and budget, you may be able to simply apply the park sealer yourself using a chemical paint or roller application system.

Asphalt patching can also help in small cracks. Small cracks in asphalt driveways or patches can often be repaired easily and professionally. When dealing with small cracks, always try to work on the problem area right away. If you leave the crack open it will quickly fill with water and expand. This will cause additional damage and possibly even cost you more in the long run. For larger cracks, consult your local contractor to decide if you need to tear up the entire asphalt driveway or if a repair with a patch will suffice.

Asphalt patching should be an easy and affordable option to protect your parking lot. If you have any questions about the process, contact your local contractors. Most will be more than happy to answer your questions and give you the information you need to make an informed decision about your parking lot\'s maintenance. The cost of repair or replacement should be considered a monthly expense. With proper preventative maintenance your garage will be protected from stains and cracks for many years to come.

 Asphalt Paving in

Asphalt paving is one of the most commonly used forms of construction today. This is due to its high adaptability and low cost. In addition, it is also considered to be a very practical option when it comes to home paving. However, it does have certain shortcomings that need to be taken note of. Read on to know about some of these and consider whether you should opt for asphalt or not.

One of the disadvantages of using an asphalt driveway is that it can be quite slippery. You need to make sure, therefore, that you drive your car carefully on it. And even if you do so, there is still a chance of your vehicle getting stuck on the asphalt. So, you should keep a good grip on the steering wheel and use all the available help you can. This is especially important if you are making a long-distance drive.

There is also a possibility that asphalt might damage the surface underneath if it is not properly sealed. This is because asphalt is a petroleum product and petroleum products can cause damage to the environment. Therefore, you should make sure that the paved area is adequately sealed to make sure that it does not erode.

It is also important to remember that asphalt can crack when it gets too wet. If this happens, you will need to replace the area with new asphalt so that it does not get cracked again in future. Otherwise, you may end up spending more on repairing cracks that you have caused. In fact, asphalt cracks can be a real headache especially during heavy rains when the paver becomes very susceptible to water penetration.

Apart from this, asphalt is also susceptible to cracking when it is exposed to heat. This is especially true during summer months when the temperature is high. During this period, it is possible for the asphalt to get very soft and mushy. When this happens, it is much harder to seal the surface properly and repair any cracks that have developed.

Another problem that can occur with an asphalt paver is when it is being used improperly. For instance, when the asphalt paver is being used to pave driveways, it can easily grind over the edges of the driveway. The grout lines might also get damaged during this process. In fact, there are some homeowners who prefer using concrete or paved paths in front of their homes and driveways. However, they often forget that they should also seal these paths. Sealing the pathways will help to keep them protected from debris, grit, water and sand.

Homeowners should therefore find a qualified company to clean up their asphalt paver once in a while. These professionals will use a pressure washer to remove all the dirt and debris that have built up on the paver. They will then use a power washer to completely clean the water surface. After this is done, you can simply have the surfaces sealed and maintained by your local company.

By hiring a company to perform regular maintenance on your asphalt paver, you will be able to prevent some very common problems. For instance, if you find that the pavers have cracks, you can ask your local maintenance company to repair these cracks before they become larger. You can also ask them to apply new asphalt once a year. If you forget to do this, the asphalt will eventually wear out and begin to crack again. By properly maintaining your asphalt paver, you will be able to save yourself money in the long run because you will not have to call maintenance on a regular basis.

 Asphalt Sealcoating in

Sealcoating Your Home

When you are considering sealcoating your home, you need to decide how much the service will cost and what benefits it will offer. Here are some of the advantages and disadvantages of using tar-based sealants, and the requirements for sealcoating. Continue reading to learn more! You can also learn about the different types of sealants and how they can benefit your home. But before you decide to get your home sealed, you should know what it takes to make your house look great afterward.

Costs of sealcoating

Cost of sealcoating differs according to the type and amount of surface it is applied to. Residential properties typically require a single coat of sealcoating to protect them from the elements. Commercial properties, on the other hand, may require more than one coat. Commercial properties include office buildings, shopping centers, corporate campuses, industrial parks, self-storage facilities, trucking facilities, and retirement communities. Homeowners\' associations, apartments, and hospitality properties can also benefit from sealcoating.

Sealcoating requires proper preparation and materials. Unlike painting, sealcoating involves a little bit of equipment. While you can hire a professional sealcoating company, the average homeowner cannot afford to hire a sealcoat professional. The cheapest tool is an industrial push broom. You can also use a power blower to remove debris, which can cost more than $1500. Once you\'ve found a reliable sealcoating contractor, it\'s time to get to work!

When it comes to materials, the cost of sealcoat depends on the amount of surface area it covers. The larger the surface area, the more expensive the sealant and labor. The table below outlines the materials, equipment, and labor costs of sealcoating projects. Each category has its own breakdown. If you\'re unsure of the exact amount you\'ll spend, contact a sealcoat contractor in your area and ask them to provide an estimate.

In addition to saving on labor costs, DIY sealcoating is a fun way to spend quality time with family and friends. While DIY sealcoating is a great way to save money, it requires poor-quality tools, trial and error, and can even cause you to ruin clothes and skin. For these reasons, hiring a sealcoating company is still a smart idea. If you\'re considering starting a sealcoating business, consider the costs and profit potential to get started.

The average cost for sealcoating a parking lot is approximately 40 cents per square foot. But that cost can be considerably higher depending on the type of equipment and sealant you choose. Low-end sealants cost anywhere from six to nine cents per square foot and will cover up to 400 square feet. Top-grade sealants will cost as much as $25 per pail. There are many factors that determine the total cost for sealcoating a parking lot.

Benefits of sealcoating

Besides its aesthetic benefits, sealcoating also helps extend the life of pavements. Its non-porous surface makes cleaning easier, while its superior sun blocking properties prevent fading of colors. Moreover, the process of sealcoating is more cost-effective than overlaying the entire pavement. And the savings are significant since sealcoating requires minimal maintenance and reduces repair costs. Therefore, it is beneficial for business owners to invest in sealcoating services.

Besides providing an extra layer of protection, sealcoating can also prevent cracks. Water will seep into untreated asphalt, spreading cracks and weakening its integrity. However, sealcoating prevents such damages by creating a protective layer on top of the asphalt. As a result, the pavement looks newer and lasts longer. In addition to this, pavement problems will be less frequent and will only show up if the sealcoating process is not followed.

Another benefit of sealcoating is that it helps accelerate the melting of snow. When applied, sealcoating also protects against rain, frost, and water penetration. However, you should make sure that the temperature of the pavement and the surrounding air are above 55 degrees Fahrenheit. Before applying the seal coat, make sure that the surface is free from dust and debris. If you need to cover a large area with sealcoating, you can also use a sprayer.

Apart from being more cost-effective, sealcoating can improve the appearance of your parking lot. For example, if your parking lot is in good shape, your customers will feel safer when they park their vehicles. In addition to this, sealcoating prevents potholes and asphalt cracks, which make parking lots look slick and safe. And if your parking lot looks old and shabby, potential customers will be repelled by it.

Similarly, asphalt pavements are susceptible to cracks and oxidation. Moreover, the expansion of water as ice can weaken the surface of the asphalt. And in some cases, the asphalt will completely wash out, destroying the gravel base beneath it. However, sealcoating can significantly extend the lifespan of an asphalt surface. And if you\'re wondering whether asphalt pavements need to be sealed, here\'s what you need to know.

Disadvantages of tar-based sealants

Many cities are hesitant to use coal tar products in new pavement. This is largely because of the carcinogenic risk of the substance, which is readily absorbed through the skin. In addition to this, coal tar-based sealants are not as long-lasting as asphalt alternatives. Therefore, customers might simply give up on resealing their pavement. This, in turn, could lead to a higher rate of resealing.

The environmental problems caused by coal tar-based sealants have prompted bans in 10 states and the District of Columbia. While research on trends in PAHs indicates that the pollution from coal tar-based sealants is not the main cause of PAHs, it may reduce their concentrations in urban water bodies. For example, a study by the University of New Hampshire found elevated levels of these chemicals in areas adjacent to coal tar. Additionally, officials in Austin, Texas, found high levels of PAHs in their waterways, which were attributed to coal tar-based sealants.

Another disadvantage of tar-based sealants is the high cost. Coal tar is expensive and not durable enough for commercial applications. In addition, it has been linked to increased traffic wearout, a condition known as raveling. DOT inspectors usually notice this problem when they come to inspect your pavement. There are no approved alternatives to coal tar emulsions. But coal tar has several advantages.

In addition to the high cost, it also contributes to pollution in the air. Children living near sealed parking lots ingest up to fourteen times more PAHs than children who don\'t live near these parking lots. Also, the dust generated by sealcoat abrading can lead to higher levels of PAHs than the concentrations in the air around a car. And if you\'re a sealcoat applicator, your skin is exposed to a higher dose of this toxic substance than you would inhale.

A study from 2009 suggests that coal-tar-based sealcoat contributes to greater PAHs than any other source. According to this study, coal-tar-based sealcoat contributed to 58 percent of the PAHs in Lady Bird Lake, a reservoir on the Colorado River in Austin. Since then, other cities have followed Austin\'s lead. In addition to imposing a fine, violating companies may face jail time.

Requirements for sealcoating

The initial application of sealcoat is important, but proper mix design and application rates are also important. Using a proper mix design procedure and Materials Inspection is essential to the success of any seal coat application. Once the binder is applied to the roadbed, the cover aggregate shall be removed by a rotary power broom. Then, pneumatic tire rollers will embed the cover aggregate. The inflation pressure for the rollers must be at least 80 psi. In this process, the contractor must adhere to a uniform spread pattern.

A proper cure time for sealcoats depends on weather conditions. The sealcoat material needs direct sunlight for the majority of its drying time. A mostly cloudy surface prevents proper drying and can significantly reduce the quality of the finished coating. If the surface is not fully dry, the application may be delayed or abandoned. For best results, the surface must be dry and free of water and dust before the final application. Then, the coating should cure for at least eight hours before it is opened to traffic.

The correct mix of a sealer is necessary to achieve a satisfactory result. The manufacturer of the sealer should recommend any additives that will enhance the performance of the sealer. If they are not supplied by the same manufacturer, it is advisable to consult the producer and manufacturer before making changes to the mix. Additionally, it is necessary to strictly follow the instructions on application and drying time. If the application process is not properly performed, the sealer may not be effective and may cause premature wear.

A good surface is essential for the proper application of a seal coat or chip seal. For instance, a surface that is subject to heavy traffic must be level before applying the seal coat or chip seal. This will prevent bleeding, or the asphalt being tracked or failing due to excessive traffic. When the surface is unstable, a leveling course can be used before applying the seal coat or chip seal. When the surface is stable, the marking process can follow.

 Asphalt Sealing in

The process of asphalt crack sealing is a great way to improve the appearance of your driveway or parking lot. 

How to Evaluate the Effectiveness of Asphalt Crack Sealing

There are several factors to consider before choosing the right type of sealant: cost, environmental impact, and quality. Listed below are some of the main factors to consider. Once you\'ve decided which method to use, you can move forward to the next step: evaluating the quality of sealants and the effectiveness of your crack sealing project.

Cost-effectiveness

To determine the effectiveness of different methods of crack sealing, researchers have analyzed the performance of unsealed and sealed pavement. Most studies have focused on unsealed pavement and found that sealing improves pavement performance. However, not many studies have compared the cost-benefit of different techniques. This research aims to address this gap. In this article, we will discuss the differences and similarities between these two methods.

Although it is an important preventive maintenance strategy, pavement experts differ on which method is more cost-effective. Using literature review, a survey, and field performance data, researchers have developed a cost-effectiveness guideline for pavement crack sealing. The results from this study provide a basis for comparing the various methods. Crack sealing is also more expensive than crack filling. Despite its initial high cost, crack sealing may offer longer service. More research is needed to determine whether higher performance materials are truly beneficial.

Environmental impact

While asphalt crack sealing may not have a negative environmental impact, it can have a detrimental impact on pavements. When applied improperly, crack sealing can cause damage to asphalt pavements due to moisture entrapment. Unlike other types of surface treatments, crack sealing prevents water from escaping upwards. In fact, crack sealing can reduce the lifespan of pavements by 1.1 to 2 years. This can lead to an increase in maintenance and rehabilitation costs.

This study shows that a crack seal technique can reduce emissions of nitrogen oxide and sulphur dioxide by 50 percent. However, the crack seal method has the lowest overall emission reduction. The researchers suggest that all methods of preventive maintenance reduce carbon dioxide emissions. They recommend that new pavement studies incorporate sustainable pavement management components and consider the environmental impact of asphalt crack sealing. The study concludes that future pavements must incorporate a comprehensive life-cycle assessment to evaluate their overall environmental impact.

Quality of sealant

When determining the quality of asphalt crack sealant, consider the following factors: Size, shape, moisture content, and repair method. Crack sealant\'s success depends on several factors. Generally, a crack less than 20% in crack density requires a more flexible product. In contrast, a larger crack density requires a stiffer sealant. In addition, sealant\'s tackiness decreases after it has been cured.

When choosing an asphalt crack filler, make sure to choose one with the right adhesive properties. Asphalt filler is not rubberized, and it might dislodge if the pavement moves. Sealant, on the other hand, expands and contracts with the pavement. If the crack filler doesn\'t expand and contract with the pavement, it is not the right choice. For this reason, choosing a high-quality asphalt crack filler is imperative.

 Crack Filling in

In the business of asphalt crack filling, you\'ll find a number of tools and techniques that will ensure the job is done correctly.

Tips For Asphalt Crack Filling

To start, you\'ll need a method for cleaning the affected area. Next, you\'ll need a Melter to heat up the filler and a crack applicator to fill the fracture. These tools and techniques will last longer and keep your road looking great. You can also use a Sand liner to make crack repair easier.

Epoxy and acrylic crack fillers offer a longer lifespan

There are some important differences between epoxy and acrylic crack fillers. Epoxy is stronger and offers longer lasting results. Acrylic has a lower cost but is not as durable as epoxy. Both fillers have the potential for cracking and deterioration. Both types of fillers offer more than one purpose. Each has their benefits, but the pros and cons of each material should be considered before choosing one over the other.

They resist moisture

Moisture damage occurs to an asphalt mixture when moisture penetrates through the pavement. This results in a decrease in strength and durability. A road network in Egypt, for example, has seen severe deterioration from water intrusion. The bond between the asphalt film and aggregates breaks. The degree of saturation is determined by the composition and the media of attack. The anti-stripping additive, hydrated lime, is used to prevent further deterioration of the pavement. The degree of saturation is also affected by the amount of air voids. The ratio of hydration to tensile strength determines the level of resistance to moisture damage.

They prevent potholes

If you want to avoid potholes, then you should consider asphalt crack filling. Potholes begin as small divots and gradually grow into large holes. This preventative maintenance can be done with supplies available from your local hardware store. Small cracks on the road can be easily repaired by patching them with an asphalt crack filler. This will save you money in the long run, as you will not have to spend money on expensive repairs to your car.

They prevent weeds

A cement crack filler can also keep weeds from growing in your asphalt driveway. You can buy horticultural vinegar, which is 20 percent acetic acid, and mix it with orange oil and phosphate-free dish soap. These chemical burns plant top growth and prevents them from photosynthesizing. However, be careful! This chemical can cause a mild burn and can harm the skin and eyes, so use it carefully.

They provide curb appeal

The appearance of a parking lot has a lot to do with a building\'s curb appeal. Curb appeal is a critical factor in sales and other observable property attributes. When a parking lot has cracks or is in poor condition, it will impact visitors and can lower the liability of the property owner. Properly maintained parking lots also enhance curb appeal, and the right crack fillings can help improve the appearance of a parking lot.

 Crack Sealing in

The process of asphalt crack sealing is a great way to improve the appearance of your driveway or parking lot. 

How to Evaluate the Effectiveness of Asphalt Crack Sealing

There are several factors to consider before choosing the right type of sealant: cost, environmental impact, and quality. Listed below are some of the main factors to consider. Once you\'ve decided which method to use, you can move forward to the next step: evaluating the quality of sealants and the effectiveness of your crack sealing project.

Cost-effectiveness

To determine the effectiveness of different methods of crack sealing, researchers have analyzed the performance of unsealed and sealed pavement. Most studies have focused on unsealed pavement and found that sealing improves pavement performance. However, not many studies have compared the cost-benefit of different techniques. This research aims to address this gap. In this article, we will discuss the differences and similarities between these two methods.

Although it is an important preventive maintenance strategy, pavement experts differ on which method is more cost-effective. Using literature review, a survey, and field performance data, researchers have developed a cost-effectiveness guideline for pavement crack sealing. The results from this study provide a basis for comparing the various methods. Crack sealing is also more expensive than crack filling. Despite its initial high cost, crack sealing may offer longer service. More research is needed to determine whether higher performance materials are truly beneficial.

Environmental impact

While asphalt crack sealing may not have a negative environmental impact, it can have a detrimental impact on pavements. When applied improperly, crack sealing can cause damage to asphalt pavements due to moisture entrapment. Unlike other types of surface treatments, crack sealing prevents water from escaping upwards. In fact, crack sealing can reduce the lifespan of pavements by 1.1 to 2 years. This can lead to an increase in maintenance and rehabilitation costs.

This study shows that a crack seal technique can reduce emissions of nitrogen oxide and sulphur dioxide by 50 percent. However, the crack seal method has the lowest overall emission reduction. The researchers suggest that all methods of preventive maintenance reduce carbon dioxide emissions. They recommend that new pavement studies incorporate sustainable pavement management components and consider the environmental impact of asphalt crack sealing. The study concludes that future pavements must incorporate a comprehensive life-cycle assessment to evaluate their overall environmental impact.

Quality of sealant

When determining the quality of asphalt crack sealant, consider the following factors: Size, shape, moisture content, and repair method. Crack sealant\'s success depends on several factors. Generally, a crack less than 20% in crack density requires a more flexible product. In contrast, a larger crack density requires a stiffer sealant. In addition, sealant\'s tackiness decreases after it has been cured.

When choosing an asphalt crack filler, make sure to choose one with the right adhesive properties. Asphalt filler is not rubberized, and it might dislodge if the pavement moves. Sealant, on the other hand, expands and contracts with the pavement. If the crack filler doesn\'t expand and contract with the pavement, it is not the right choice. For this reason, choosing a high-quality asphalt crack filler is imperative.

 Driveway Paving in

Whether you\'re replacing your old driveway or simply trying to improve your curb appeal, there are a few things you need to know about driveway paving. From the cost to the materials used, here are some helpful tips to guide your next project.

What You Need to Know About Driveway Paving

The best way to determine the true cost of your driveway paving project is to get a free estimate from a driveway paving specialist near you. There are many experts ready to help. The cost of a new driveway will vary greatly depending on the size, shape, and material of the driveway.

There are four main types of driveways. They are asphalt, concrete, gravel, and pavers. All four come in different styles and performance qualities. The most popular material is a paving stone.

However, you can also install a small gravel driveway. If you are a green space fan, you may want to consider installing a grass paver instead.

The cost of driveway paving will depend on the size of your driveway, the material you choose, and the labor required. This includes the actual installation of the driveway as well as the disposal of the old material.

The cheapest material for a driveway is a gravel one. The average price ranges from a few hundred to a few thousand dollars. Alternatively, you can pay for the labor to lay down a paver base.

A properly constructed driveway can last decades. The most durable type is a gravel or grass filled plastic paver. These can be easily replaced if they start to wear out.

 Parking Lot Paving in

Whether you\'re building a new parking lot or upgrading the one you already have, you should be aware of the process involved. From the initial site work to the final coating, it\'s important to take the right steps.

How to Properly Prepare Your Parking Lot for Paving

First, you\'ll want to choose a contractor with the expertise and experience to get the job done right. Your contractor should also be willing to provide a full estimate of materials and labor, and the cost will vary depending on the size and complexity of your project.

Next, you\'ll want to decide on the type of asphalt you\'ll use. Traditionally, asphalt paving has been done using base asphalt mixtures over an aggregate layer. This is the most common method. The advantages of this approach include the ability to keep the parking lot at a constant elevation, which eliminates the need for underdrains.

You\'ll also need to decide on how you\'ll handle water management. The amount of water your pavement can handle is a key factor in its longevity. If you\'re unable to control how much moisture a surface can absorb, it can cause damage.

In addition, you\'ll need to make sure your sub-base is adequately prepared for a new asphalt surface. Most subgrade soils contain silt and clay. This can cause moisture to penetrate the sub-base and undermine the structural strength of the pavement.

You\'ll also want to consider the appropriate thickness of your asphalt paving. The thickness of your base course and surface course will depend on how much traffic your parking lot gets.

 Paving Company in

What to Look for in an Asphalt Paving Contractor

Countryside Paving Company has been in the business of paving for over two decades. The business has a strong commitment to customer satisfaction and a long-standing commitment to excellence. The Company offers many different types of paving services including, driveway paving, walkway paving, sidewalk paving, slab paving, decorative paving, and much more. This company is able to offer these different services because they have many qualified and experienced employees. Most of the employees are unionized, which is one of the main reasons that this company is able to offer some of these paving services at an affordable price. They are also able to offer these services because most of their labor is unionized, this is why you will notice that their employees talk to you as one of the family and not just as another worker.

If you need some commercial paving services, then you can expect to have the work done quickly and efficiently. One of the major reasons that this company can provide you with great commercial paving services is because they are fully stocked with the tools and materials needed to complete your project. By having a full stock of all of the materials that you need to get the job done, you will be able to save a lot of money and time. Because the majority of the paving job requires a concrete base, this is another reason why the commercial paving company is able to keep prices low because they are able to buy these materials in large quantities. They are also able to pass these savings on to you by charging you a low price for the job.

Another reason why you should use a reputable paving company is because they specialize in all types of jobs. For example, if you are paving a parking lot, then you might want to use a paving contractor that specializes in asphalt surfaces. Parking lots are usually the most popular type of pavement job that you will find that a paving company takes on. There are a number of different things that you will need to consider when choosing a paving company to take on this job for you, but the most important consideration will be the quality of the job that you will get.

If you want to choose the best paving contractor possible for your paving needs, then you will need to make sure that you spend some time checking out different companies that offer this service. Some of the things that you will want to look for include the experience of the paving contractor. A good way to determine whether or not this is the case is to ask for references from previous clients. If you find a paving contractor that has a lot of good references, then you will want to consider hiring that contractor for your commercial paving needs. It is always best to choose a good contractor who has a lot of positive references rather than one that has a lot of poor references.

Another thing to consider is the level of skill and knowledge that a paving company has when it comes to working on an asphalt surface. You should check out the paving contractor\'s portfolio to see if they know what they are doing when it comes to working on asphalt surfaces. Some of the best companies in the business have been doing paving work for a long time and they have a lot of experience. It is important to know that the job that you are going to be getting done will be done right the first time around. If you have any doubts about the ability of a paving company to handle a certain type of asphalt surface, then you will want to choose another company to do your asphalt surface paving.

The last thing that you will want to consider before choosing a paving company is their longevity. It is important to choose a paving company that can stay in business for at least three generations. If you are trying to save a few bucks, you will want to look for a paving company that does not have a lot of experience. The good news is that there are many paving companies that are willing to stay in business for more than three generations. If you are trying to cut costs, however, you will want to choose a paving company that is experienced and one that offers good customer service. If a paving company cannot make an accurate estimate or provide specific information about the cost of your project within three days, then you may want to hire a different company.

If you are trying to find a paving company that can get the job done within three generations, you will need to ask them about their track record. The last thing that you want to do is hire a commercial paving contractor that is not very experienced. A good commercial paving contractor will help you to create the best-looking commercial driveway that you can possibly imagine. They will also make sure that the driveway is not only well marked but that it is properly laid and organized as well. The last thing that you want to do is hire a paving company that makes a mistake during the installation of the asphalt paving contractor.

Asphalt paving is an easy task to complete but it does require a lot of expertise. Before you hire any company, it will be important to ask them about the amount of experience that they have with asphalt paving. Any paving company should be able to provide you with a list of references that they have supplied to previous customers. You can also request to see a proof of insurance or a business license if you feel that the company does not have the proper licensing to carry out the kind of work that they are doing.

 Asphalt Maintenance in

What You Need to Know About Asphalt Maintenance

If you\'re interested in learning more about Asphalt Maintenance, you\'ve come to the right place. This article covers Preventative maintenance, Crack sealing, Sealcoating, and Overlaying. Hopefully, this article will answer any of your questions. And in case you have any more questions, feel free to contact us directly. Alternatively, you can read about these maintenance practices by reading our articles on paving. Here are a few tips:

Preventative maintenance

A pre-existing pavement is a great place to start with preventative maintenance. Performing regular maintenance on asphalt can help it last longer and prevent the need for expensive repairs later on. You can prepare a checklist of tasks for a regular asphalt maintenance schedule that you can follow to ensure the pavement looks good for as long as possible. There are many ways to maintain your pavement, so make sure you use it to its full potential.

One way to extend the life of asphalt pavement is to perform regular preventative maintenance. This will allow you to extend the life of your pavement structure, which can save you thousands of dollars over the course of ten years. You can learn more about the preventative maintenance process by contacting your city engineer or director of public works. You can also get the necessary supplies and tools for the work yourself. Preventative maintenance will help you save money in the long run, so it\'s well worth it to consider it before investing in a new pavement.

Crack sealing

In many cases, cracks are not completely sealed, allowing rain and moisture to seep through, eroding the base materials beneath the asphalt and causing potholes. Crack sealing slows the process of deterioration of the pavement by stopping moisture and preventing loss of aggregate. It can save a substantial amount of money over replacing the entire pavement. Here are some reasons to use crack sealing. Hopefully, these tips will prove to be helpful.

First, crack sealing is a long-term treatment. The best time to apply the material is when temperatures are moderate and the cracks are still small. Ideally, it should be applied when cracks are newly developed to maximize its effectiveness. In addition, crack sealing requires a minimum of two weeks to cure. Afterwards, it is recommended to use a de-tacking agent, such as liquid or fine sand, to prevent further damage to the surface.

Sealcoating

If you are in need of asphalt maintenance or repair, you might be considering the benefits of sealcoating. Sealcoat is composed of heated asphalt bitumen, which turns viscous when it dries. Asphalt bitumen is a by-product of crude oil that is used in road construction. However, synthetic tar substances do not require heating before they can be applied to asphalt. In order to apply sealcoating, your asphalt surface must be completely dry and free of all debris.

There are many benefits to sealcoating your asphalt surface. It will prevent cracks and maintain its luster. But, choosing the right sealcoat is essential to keep it looking great and functioning properly for years to come. While some types of sealcoat are better for driveways, asphalt emulsions are the best. They provide protection against traffic while preventing bitumen from oxidizing and becoming brittle. Another benefit of applying sealcoat is that they dry within three to four hours.

Overlaying

Overlaying asphalt is a way of extending the life of existing pavements without completely tearing them out. This process can add several years of useful service without detracting from aesthetics or functionality. The cost of overlays may offset the savings made by not replacing the original pavement. However, proper application can prolong the life of a pavement up to fifteen years. Here are some of the advantages of asphalt overlays. These benefits make this maintenance strategy a great option for a wide variety of applications.

Overlays are only applicable over existing asphalt. This means that you\'ll have to take a few measures before laying the asphalt overlay. Root damage, huge potholes, and other types of damage that can\'t be fixed by overlaying will require tearing the structure apart. Poor drainage also makes it difficult to apply an asphalt overlay. In such cases, the surface must be graded to allow water to drain away easily. Asphalt milling is another option, which is a method of removing the damaged upper layer of asphalt to allow for an overlay to be applied.

 Commercial Paving in

Commercial paving involves the repairing and maintenance of public and private properties. In many countries, the government allocates a part of its budget for the paving of roads, buildings and other structures. The maintenance and repair of pavements and walkways is a regular task that is entrusted to commercial paving companies. There are a number of types of pavements, such as drainage, traffic control, beautification, and parking lots. For any establishment, it is important to have a well-maintained and beautiful pavement to make them look presentable and appealing.

Commercial Paving Services for Improvement of Business Facilities

Commercial paving can also be damaged by some external factors, such as severe weather, vandalism, careless parking, and the use of unsanitary practices. When parking lot owners or operators do not maintain their parking lots properly, they may find themselves liable for damages that arise due to such negligence. If asphalt pavement is prone to deterioration due to heavy rains or the use of an inferior sealant, they may end up having to repair the damaged areas. Repairing such damages may prove to be a costly venture, which is why it is essential to contact a reliable company that can provide durable, attractive, and cost-effective repairs.

A good commercial paving company should be able to provide durable and attractive commercial concrete structures that are able to withstand any type of weather. These structures should also be repaired or replaced easily and efficiently, in order to prevent inconveniences to both customers and business owners. A reputable company should always be able to perform regular maintenance activities such as drainage cleaning, color change, and stone removal. These tasks are important to maintain the cleanliness and condition of commercial concrete, which in turn helps in maintaining the value of the property.

One of the main tasks of any paving company is to maintain the overall appearance of its commercial parking lot or building. This can be achieved by regularly cleaning out the parking lot. This is one of the most effective ways of promoting the brand image of the company. Furthermore, regular maintenance of the commercial paving services will allow business owners to identify possible problems such as cracks and other types of damage. Such issues can be resolved quickly, without the need to completely replace the commercial asphalt or concrete.

Cracks and other damage to pavement should never be overlooked as these can affect the overall durability of a pavement. A qualified paving job crew should be able to repair all types of cracks that could be found in asphalt pavements. In case cracks are located in an area with high traffic, it is advisable to get them repaired immediately. For this reason, it is necessary to choose a paving job crew that has established contacts with experienced contractors.

Apart from cracked and damaged asphalt pavements, another area that can benefit from the service of a paving contractor is the parking lots. Parking lots that are not properly maintained can lead to a lot of problems for business owners. When the parking lot is not properly paved, it can expose the vehicle tires to uneven conditions. In addition, if the parking lot is not properly maintained, it can also reduce the life span of the vehicle tires. Therefore, it is advisable to contact professional pavement repair services to have a parking lot repaired and maintained.

Another popular commercial service that many business owners hire is the installation of blacktop. Blacktop is a layer of asphalt on the paved surfaces of the building. It makes the driveways look more attractive and extends the life of the building\'s driveways. However, blacktop requires regular cleaning and maintenance. Professional blacktop installation should be done by trained professionals so that the blacktop will not slip and will not damage the surrounding areas.

It is important to hire professionals for blacktop installations because some DIY ideas can be dangerous and damaging. The material that is used for blacktop is asphalt and it is very thick. Hence, improper handling of this material can lead to cracks and potholes. In addition to this, the process of installing bitumen can be messy and long. If the surface of the parking areas are not cleaned and maintained regularly, they can cause damage to the asphalt.

 Concrete Contractor in

There are many things to consider when hiring concrete contractors, such as what their credentials are. A concrete contractor can be a beneficial asset to any construction project, but there are certain steps that should be taken to ensure you will hire someone who will do a good job for you. Most of the time, you can obtain information on a concrete contractor by asking questions at various businesses, such as home improvement stores, apartment complexes and flooring stores. You may also find concrete contractors by placing an ad in the newspaper or on the Internet.

The first thing you need to do when trying to find concrete contractors is to create a business plan for your project. A business plan is essentially a list of your goals and the methods you will use to reach them. A concrete contractor should be able to help you with your business plan by providing you with statistics showing how long their company has been around and details about their expertise.

It is important to talk to several different contractors before making a final decision on who you want to employ to do a concrete repair job on your building. One way to find concrete contractors is to post ads in neighborhoods. Ask if anyone has a business that they would recommend. Another way is to attend local contractors meetings to network with other commercial concrete contractors.

After determining which concrete contractors need to be employed, it is important to determine the level of experience they have. For instance, there are different levels of experience for doing concrete works, such as installing pavers, sanding, pouring concrete and more. You should consider which level of experience a contractor has before making a decision. There is always the option of hiring a contractor that has been doing concrete work for many years, but this might cost you more. However, experienced concrete contractors need to be properly tested to ensure that they can do a good repair job on your building.

Most commercial cement contractors also have a website where their customers and clients can go to learn more about them. They may have testimonials and references to look at as well. It is also a good idea to ask your potential contractor\'s questions before hiring them. If the answers provided are satisfactory, they will likely be able to provide you with a list of past jobs and even let you see pictures of what they have done in the past. You can also request free estimates from concrete contractors, which can greatly increase productivity as they can show you their level of ability and tell you how much they plan on charging you.

Commercial concrete contractors can significantly increase productivity by contracting with qualified and experienced workers. The best results can be achieved when workers are skilled and knowledgeable at what they do. This is why you need to thoroughly research each company you are considering before hiring them to complete your cement work. With a little bit of research and thorough interviews, you can get a much better idea about which concrete contractors are the best at what they do.

 Fire Lane Compliance in

Fire Lane Compliance Requirements

If you are a manager of a property, you have to understand the requirements for fire lane compliance. This will help you in your daily business operations and in your efforts to maintain safety. A well-marked fire lane will ensure that emergency vehicles can access your building safely and efficiently. Fire lanes are marked with red paint on the road edge and with words, such as \"FIRE LANE,\" stenciled in white.

A fire lane is a passageway to or from an access road or a fire hydrant. It should be a minimum of 20 feet wide and have a 30 feet turning radius. The grade should not exceed 10 percent. Depending on the city and your specific location, you may also be required to install fire lines on the road surface or on the curb.

For businesses, fire lane compliance is essential for the safety of employees and patrons. Moreover, it is not only a requirement, but a legal obligation. You can be ticketed for driving in a fire lane without permission. Similarly, if you park in a fire lane illegally, you may have your car towed. To avoid such a situation, check with local authorities to make sure you are in compliance with all laws.

Another mandatory component of a properly marked fire lane is a \"No Parking - Fire Lane\" sign. These signs must be installed on public and private roads in accordance with an approved plan. They should be at least six inches in height and should face the direction of vehicular travel.

Additionally, the lettering for this signage must be at least 12 inches in diameter and have a maximum of 18 inches in height. It must be mounted on posts that are at least two inches in diameter and made of galvanized steel. Depending on the size of the sign, a three inch brush stroke on the adjacent surface must read, \"No Parking - Fire Lane.\"

Other requirements for fire lane compliance include the number of letters that are displayed. Each letter in the \"No Parking - Fire Lane\" must be a block letter. The letters should be spaced at no more than 50 feet apart.

Depending on your particular jurisdiction, there are many other rules and regulations for fire lanes. You should always be aware of them and follow them accordingly. Not only does this ensure the safety of you and your patrons, it can save you money. Having professional fire lane striping in your parking lot will ensure that your property is in compliance with city codes.

When planning for a new parking area, you should always do a pre-inspection with your local fire marshal. He or she will provide you with a list of requirements, including details of which are necessary for fire lane compliance. However, if you are unsure whether your lot meets the standards, you can call the City Clerk\'s Office to find out.

Ideally, the smallest and most important of the numerous fire lane related items is a well-marked fire lane. It will allow for easy access by emergency vehicles, thereby ensuring the safety of your patrons.

 Foundation Work in

What You Need to Know About Foundation Work

Foundation work is a specialized type of job that requires a lot of skills and experience. The work may include legal and research responsibilities, public relations, communications and other administrative duties. Depending on the scope of the job, you may also need to prepare reports or write articles of incorporation.

A concrete slab foundation is a reliable and inexpensive foundation. It is also easily installed. This kind of foundation is a great option for modern homeowners, because it does not require below-ground storage. If you\'re thinking about building a new home, you should consider this option.

Investing in foundations is important to the integrity of your home. If your foundation isn\'t performing its job, you could end up with costly repairs down the road. There are many different ways to improve your foundation, and you can even hire a structural engineer to make recommendations.

In order to choose the best foundation for your needs, you will want to research options and compare prices. The more you know, the better off you will be. Besides choosing the right foundation, you need to find a contractor who can complete the job correctly.

You can start by asking your neighbors if they have foundation work done on their home. Many of them won\'t mind sharing their experience. Also, you can ask local building professionals to provide you with recommendations.

Another way to tell if you need to do foundation work is by noticing signs that the foundation is not functioning as it should. For example, you might see cracks or a noticeable shift in the floor. If you notice these signs, you should call a professional contractor to get a quote. Typically, it will cost about $4,500 for the average home.

If your foundation isn\'t working well, you might want to look into a foundation lift. This involves the placement of a hydraulic jack under the house. Once the jack is in place, it will raise the structure a millimeter or two at a time. Your foundation will then be raised to a level where construction can take place.

You might also need to reinforce the columns in your home. This can help you protect your property from storms and flooding. You can install vapor barriers to help keep moisture out of your house. Adding insulation can add about $1,400 to $2,300 to the total cost of your project.

There are many different types of foundation work, and some jobs require several years of experience and a bachelor\'s degree. However, you should be clear about your goals and priorities before deciding which type of foundation is the best choice for you.

Choosing the best type of foundation for your needs is a very technical decision. Take your time to investigate your options and ask intelligent questions. Make sure you ask about warranties and certifications so you can be confident in your decision.

Lastly, the most important thing to remember is to have a clear plan. If you\'re just starting a foundation, you need to be sure you\'re doing the right things to manage your funds.

 Grading and Excavating in

What is Grading and Excavating?

Grading and excavation is a process of shaping and reshaping soil. It is done to level the ground for foundations and landscaping. When grading the land, a team of workers scrapes away bumps and lumps to create a smooth, even surface. This process is done by using a Bobcat or other heavy equipment.

The main goal of grading is to create a stable slate for a home\'s foundation. If the land is sloped, grading can help to prevent flooding and erosion. A grading contractor can offer advice on how to prepare the site for a building.

Before beginning a grading project, a grading and excavation contractor needs to obtain a permit from the local jurisdiction. He also has to ensure that his workers are safe and comply with all construction regulations. In addition, he must make sure the project will fit in with the rest of the neighborhood.

Grading and excavation contractors provide services for commercial and industrial projects. Their work is based on specifications provided by engineers. They analyze the slope and type of soil on a property, and determine the best machinery to excavate. For example, an excavator may dig for irrigation lines or utility lines.

A grading and excavation contractor is responsible for ensuring the safety of their workers, as well as the safety of the project. They have to know the hazards of the site and have a plan to prevent deterioration of the property. They must also have the right permits and licenses.

Grading and excavation are important parts of any construction project. These processes prepare the site for foundations, utilities, and other structures. Depending on the size of the property, the amount of labor and the complexity of the project, a grading and excavation company may need to have a large fleet of heavy equipment to finish the job.

In most cases, grading is done at the end of a construction project. It is usually done to flatten the ground or to correct drainage problems. Sometimes, grading is used in paving projects. Grading can also be done for aesthetic reasons.

If your home has a pool, a grading and excavation company can dig a hole that holds the foundation for your swimming pool. An experienced and professional grading and excavation contractor can get the project completed safely.

Whether you have a residential or commercial property, grading and excavation can be the right way to make your land safe. By removing and compacting the top layer of dirt, grading helps to eliminate the possibility of flooding or erosion. Land grading can be done by a grading and excavation contractor, or by a reputable land clearing company.

Land grading is a complicated process that requires careful planning. Larger properties require more labor and bigger machinery to complete the job. Additionally, moving large structures such as fences can increase the complexity of the grading process. However, a grading and excavation contractor can help you determine the type of project, the type of land and the types of debris that need to be removed.

 Paving Contractor in

Things To Remember Before Hiring An Asphalt Paving Contractor

A paving contractor is basically a business which constructs paved surfaces for residential, commercial, and civic projects. They also assist on large projects, like airport runways, municipal streets, bridges, and many more. Paving contractors usually work on public roads or sidewalks, repairing potholes, cracks, deep holes, and other unsightly signs of damage on already paved surfaces. There are also instances where they construct retaining walls or put down berms for parking lots, etc. Paving contractors have the knowledge and equipment needed to lay down an asphalt pavement, as well as the manpower to complete the job. In this article, you will get some basic information about what a paving contractor does.

The primary duty of a paving contractor is to prepare the area for the paving of the paved surface, making sure it is solid and flat. When a driveway or parking lot is constructed, the contractor needs to make sure that the driveway and the parking lot do not have any uneven surfaces, especially when there is heavy traffic on them. To do this, the contractor uses an overhead skid steer, which is used to dump material onto the roadway, leveling the surface and compacting it. Once this is done, it is time to move on to the task of laying down the quality asphalt.

Most paving contractors may use a roller to move the materials along the paved area. A front-end loader, semi-trailer trucks, and tractor-trailer trucks are some of the main equipment that are used by paving contractors. If you want to have the paving job done quickly, you can opt to have the machines operated by a professional. This way, you can ensure that the job is done right the first time and you avoid any mistakes or mishaps. An operator who knows how to operate the different machines can also ensure that the job gets done fast and efficiently.

Commercial paving companies usually employ a number of workers. Some of these workers specialize in the pavement, while others focus on other aspects of the job, such as parking structures, walkways, driveway designs and others. If you want your driveway to look beautiful, but you do not have the money to hire a professional paving company, then you may opt to do the driveway on your own. However, before embarking on this venture, you need to make sure that you know what to do and what needs to be done in order to get the job done right.

In making an informed decision, you must first assess the size of your driveway. If you have a relatively small driveway, then it is better if you hire the services of a residential asphalt paving contractor rather than a commercial one. Even if you have a large driveway that needs to be paved, it may still be cheaper if you get a residential contractor to do the job instead of hiring a professional asphalt paving contractor.

Next, you must choose the type of paving contractor to get. For instance, if you have a small parking lot, then you should get a paving company to do the work. Remember that parking lots are generally quite small. A regular driveway, on the other hand, may require the services of a driving range. Getting the proper paving company to handle your driveway will ensure that the job gets done properly and efficiently.

When choosing a commercial paving contractor, you should always consider the reputation of these contractors. You should ask many paving companies to give you references so that you can compare their services. Asphalt parking lots and driveways are typically very different from residential driveways and they require different kinds of services. Thus, if you want to get your driveway done correctly, it is important that you get a paving company with a good reputation in this area.

Apart from choosing a reputable contractor, you should also ensure that you have a clear understanding of how an asphalt paving machine works before you actually hire one. A poorly managed asphalt paving machine can create many problems, some of which may go beyond the initial estimate. You need to remember that the contractor may be charging more than what the machine can actually deliver because he doesn\'t know the intricacies of using the equipment. If you hire a contractor with a good track record, it is highly likely that he will be able to handle any unforeseen circumstances that may arise during the course of the project.

 Public Works in

What Is Public Works?

Public Works is an umbrella term for the many policies and services that help to maintain a community. These policies and services include everything from street maintenance, traffic operations, parks and recreation, water treatment, and sewage systems. They are all designed to enhance the quality of life in a community and to meet the needs of the general public.

The United States has over 19,400 municipalities and the concept of public works is common throughout the country. However, some cities may not have a department with the name. In those instances, the public works division of the city may be a separate, non-departmental department.

Regardless of the specifics, the goal of Public Works is to provide a safe, healthy, and attractive environment for residents and visitors. This includes the design, construction, and maintenance of City-owned infrastructure and buildings, as well as the development and maintenance of city parks, greenspaces, and other public areas.

To deliver these services, the public works department employs a workforce of more than 250 full-time staff members. They work from state-of-the-art equipment and use their knowledge to provide high-quality public services to the city\'s residents and visitors.

A large part of Public Works\' responsibilities is the maintenance and repair of City-owned facilities, including paving, storm drainage, and sidewalks. Additionally, the Department\'s Parks & Grounds department is responsible for maintaining City-owned parks and outdoor spaces.

Another important role of the Department of Public Works is the management of the City\'s right-of-way. These rights-of-way include roads, bridges, and railroads, as well as utility lines and other infrastructure. It is also the Department\'s responsibility to protect the health and safety of residents and visitors by monitoring and enforcing parts of the City\'s Code of Ordinances.

Public works can be defined as any project undertaken by a government or private organization. These projects may be used for employment purposes, for recreational uses, or for the public benefit. As such, they may be financed by taxes and regulated by governmental units. Some public works projects, such as the creation of an electric grid, are paid for by the public and are therefore considered to be a public works project.

While some people think that public works are the sole responsibility of government, it is important to note that the private sector can also deliver these services. For instance, the Oak Lawn Village Board has approved a three-year contract with the Public Works employees that provides average raises of 3% per year.

There is an ongoing debate about whether or not private-sector contractors should or should not be involved in public works projects. While some argue that a fully outsourced model is the best way to go, others believe that the government should be more involved in providing the services. Many public works projects are inefficient and waste taxpayers\' money.

The Department of Public Works is the third largest division in the City Government. It maintains 47 city-owned facilities. It also provides a wide variety of programs and services to the City of Memphis.

 Residential Paving in

Asphalt paving for residential driveways is a cost effective and long-lasting alternative to concrete. This type of paving offers many advantages, including high skid resistance, low maintenance, and a smoother surface. It is often used to pave pathways, parking lots, and even cart paths.

Tips For Installing Residential Paving

One of the biggest advantages of asphalt is its ability to be designed to suit a wide variety of soils and conditions. A good paving contractor will also take into consideration budgetary concerns as well as the durability of the product.

The most popular type of residential paving is the asphalt driveway. These driveways are a cost-effective and attractive way to enhance the look of your home. However, installing a new one is not an easy task. As a result, you should hire a reputable paving company.

Before you begin, you should make sure that the project is approved by the municipality. Depending on the size of your property, you may need to work with the zoning board or planning department. If your paving job includes a subdrain, you will also have to consider the water management for the job.

If you have an existing concrete driveway, it may be possible to simply remove it and have the subbase converted to a new subbase for overlaying. However, this is not always the best option. For example, if your property has clayey soil, you will have to prepare the subbase properly.

Other options include the use of decorative concrete or an asphalt resurfacing process. Regardless of the material you choose, you should always look for the best paving company for your project. You can do this by contacting the Better Business Bureau or visiting the projects of potential contractors.

The best way to determine the appropriate thickness of asphalt is to take into account the specific needs of your project. While there are no hard and fast rules, a good rule of thumb is to use at least 2\" of asphalt for residential projects.

The smallest sized square yard of asphalt weighs between two and four tons. When comparing the cost of different types of paving materials, you should also consider the cost of labor, the costs of materials, and the time involved in the process. In addition, you will need to decide whether you would rather have an underdrain or not. Many residential driveways don\'t require underdrains, but some may.

Another advantage of an asphalt paving is the fact that it\'s much less expensive to install than other paving materials. In addition, it is far less susceptible to cracking than other types of paving materials. Lastly, it is very durable, allowing it to last for years without requiring a lot of maintenance.

Whether you are looking for a new residential driveway or resurfacing your current one, you should seek the help of a trusted paving contractor. The right choice can mean the difference between a beautiful and functional driveway and a disastrous one. Moreover, a good paving company will be able to answer all of your questions and address all of your concerns, helping you get the most out of your paving budget.

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