About Foundation Work
Are you a person in the real estate profession? One of your first concerns should be the strength of the foundations of your structure. It is pointless to have a massive home if the flooring and walls are not sturdy.
The building of a foundation is a vital aspect of the process. It uses a structural support system to secure the structure underneath the building. It has two primary functions: to prevent overloading and lateral movement of the structure it supports and to provide structural support. If these steps are not completed correctly, it won't be easy to generate a result. It is critical to begin proper foundation work immediately and not delay.
Purpose of Foundation Work
This work is done to establish a stable foundation to support and hold together the structure built on top of it. Contrary to popular opinion, that the ground is solid and durable, it is not always the case.
Natural forces may cause cracks or damage to a home that is merely constructed on its foundation. A correctly designed foundation strengthens the resilience of a home structure to abuse and assures that the building is safe for the individuals who live in it.
Functions of the Foundation
The foundation of a building serves many functions. These functions are ranked according to the land beneath the building and the design of the building. These three are the most crucial functions of the foundation:
A house foundation is designed to support and bear the loads of the house structure that sits on top. Additional foundation structures, such as vertical piles, may stabilize the structure if the ground beneath is unstable. Continuous foundations can be described as one structure connected to all four in-ground footings.
A house that is constructed well will stay together. It can easily be swept away by natural forces, such as earthquakes, if it isn't anchored to a foundation. Foundations are made of dense, solid materials such as concrete and stone that resist shaking better than house superstructures. Bolting a house to its foundation will help it retain and stabilize its structure and make it less likely to be destroyed by a natural disaster.
Prevent Ground Moisture
There is a high risk of rot in ground-contacting posts in areas with heavy ground moisture. A box foundation with a concrete slab can be sealed to keep water out. It will protect the house from dampness and provide extra space.
Types of Foundations and Their Uses
There are two types of foundations: deep and shallow. Before deciding on a foundation type for your construction project, it is essential to understand its suitability. Here are the two types of foundation and their uses:
Also known as "spread" or "open feet," shallow foundations are best used when the building is not too heavy, or the soil can support a substantial amount of weight at a shallow depth.
Individual or Isolated Footing
The most commonly used foundation type for building construction is an individual footing. Also known as a "pad foundation," this foundation is designed for one column.
It can be rectangular, square, or even a geometric concrete block. It can carry the weight of one column or pillar. The width of each footing will be determined by the weight of the load and the soil's bearable capacity.
A combined footing is similar to an individual one, except that one base bears the weight of two columns or pillars that are close enough to warrant a shared foundation point.
Two or more columns may be combined into a single footing if their isolated footings are near enough to intersect. It's a collection of separate footings, but the way they're put together isn't the same.
Spread or Strip and Wall footings
It is common for the strip footing to be two or three times the width of the wall at issue and to be constructed of reinforced concrete. If the load-bearing wall is made of masonry, then a continuous footing extends along the entire length of the wall as a foundation.
These foundations are used when the building's weight will be distributed on load-bearing walls rather than columns, beams, or pillars. It can construct brick walls and build structures on gravel or tightly packed sand.
Raft or Mat Foundations
When a structure is constructed on a mat foundation, the whole load-bearing foundation is contained inside the basement. In cases when the soil is loose and weak and needs the weight to be uniformly distributed, mat foundations are often employed.
Mat foundations are also employed when the pillars or columns are close together and a basement is practicable. It is called a "raft foundation" because of the foundation being immersed in the earth like a water raft. It provides load-bearing support and water resistance.
A foundation should be placed deep underground or underwater to allow contact with the firmer layers of earth. Deep foundations are necessary when building on sandy soil or other soft soil. These soils will not absorb the building's load.
A pile foundation is a deep foundation used to transfer heavy loads to hard rock strata deep below ground level.
Pile foundations can be used to transfer heavy loads from structures to hard soil strata. It is much lower than the ground level for shallow foundations like spread or mat footings. It also prevents the structure from being lifted by lateral loads like earthquakes or wind forces.
Drilled Shafts or Caisson Foundation
Caissons are also known as "drilled shafts." They are a type of deep foundation that is similar to pile foundations but has a high capacity for casting in-situ foundations. It can resist loads from the structure by either shaft resistance or toe resistance. An auger is used to construct drilled shafts and caissons.
Drilled shafts or caisson foundations are inappropriate when water-bearing granular soils and soft clays are present. Soil that is unstable due to cavern formations, boulder-rich soil, or an artesian aquifer is not suited for this method.
About South Los Angeles, CA
In 1880, the University of Southern California, and in 1920, the Doheny Campus of Mount St. Mary's University, were founded in South Los Angeles. The 1932 and 1984 Olympic Games took place near the USC campus at neighboring Exposition Park, where the Los Angeles Coliseum is located.
Until the 1920s, the South Los Angeles neighborhood of West Adams was one of the most desirable areas of the City. As the wealthy were building stately mansions in West Adams and Jefferson Park, the White working class was establishing itself in Crenshaw and Hyde Park. Affluent blacks gradually moved into West Adams and Jefferson Park. As construction along the Wilshire Boulevard corridor gradually increased in the 1920s, the development of the city was drawn west of downtown and away from South Los Angeles.
In the eastern side of South Los Angeles (which the city calls the "Southeastern CPA") roughly east of the Harbor Freeway, the area grew southward in the late 1800s along the ever longer streetcar routes. Areas north of Slauson Boulevard were mostly built out by the late 1910s, while south of Slauson land was mostly undeveloped, much used by Chinese and Japanese Americans growing produce. In 1903, the farmers were bought out and Ascot Park racetrack was built, which turned into a "den of gambling and drinking". In the late 1910s the park was razed and freed up land for quick build-up of residential and industrial buildings in the 1920s.
"By 1940, approximately 70 percent of the black population of Los Angeles was confined to the Central Avenue corridor"; the area of modest bungalows and low-rise commercial buildings along Central Avenue emerged as the heart of the black community in southern California. Originally, the city's black community was concentrated around what is now Little Tokyo, but began moving south after 1900. It had one of the first jazz scenes in the western U.S., with trombonist Kid Ory a prominent resident. Under racially restrictive covenants, blacks were allowed to own property only within the "Slauson Box" (the area bounded by Main, Slauson, Alameda, and Washington) and in Watts, as well as in small enclaves elsewhere in the city. The working- and middle-class blacks who poured into Los Angeles during the Great Depression and in search of jobs during World War II found themselves penned into what was becoming a severely overcrowded neighborhood. During the war, blacks faced such dire housing shortages that the Housing Authority of the City of Los Angeles built the virtually all-black and Latino Pueblo Del Rio project, designed by Richard Neutra.
During this time, African Americans remained a minority alongside whites, Asians, and Hispanics; but by the 1930s those groups moved out of the area, African Americans continued to move in, and eastern South LA became majority black. Whites in previously established communities south of Slauson, east of Alameda and west of San Pedro streets persecuted blacks moving beyond established "lines", and thus blacks became effectively restricted to the area in between.
When the Supreme Court banned the legal enforcement of race-oriented restrictive covenants in 1948's Shelley v. Kraemer, blacks began to move into areas outside the increasingly overcrowded Slauson-Alameda-Washington-Main settlement area. For a time in the early 1950s, southern Los Angeles became the site of significant racial violence, with whites bombing, firing into, and burning crosses on the lawns of homes purchased by black families south of Slauson. In an escalation of behavior that began in the 1920s, white gangs in nearby cities such as South Gate and Huntington Park routinely accosted blacks who traveled through white areas. The black mutual protection clubs that formed in response to these assaults became the basis of the region's street gangs.
As in most urban areas, 1950s freeway construction radically altered the geography of southern Los Angeles. Freeway routes tended to reinforce traditional segregation lines.
Beginning in the 1970s, the rapid decline of the area's manufacturing base resulted in a loss of the jobs that had allowed skilled union workers to enjoy a middle-class lifestyle. Downtown Los Angeles' service sector, which had long been dominated by unionized African Americans earning relatively fair wages, replaced most black workers with newly arrived Mexican and Central American immigrants.
Widespread unemployment, poverty and street crime contributed to the rise of street gangs in South Central, such as the Crips and the Bloods. The gangs became even more powerful with money coming in from drugs, especially the crack cocaine trade that was dominated by gangs in the 1980s.
Paul Feldman of the Los Angeles Times wrote in 1989:
He added that they believed such "distinctive neighborhoods" as Leimert Park, Lafayette Square and the Crenshaw District were "well-removed" from South Central.
By the early 2010s, the crime rate of South Los Angeles had declined significantly. Redevelopment, improved police patrol, community-based peace programs, gang intervention work, and youth development organizations lowered the murder and crime rates to levels that had not been seen since the 1940s and '50s. Nevertheless, South Los Angeles was still known for its gangs at the time. After leading the nation in homicides again in 2002, the City Council of Los Angeles voted to change the name South Central Los Angeles to South Los Angeles on all city documents in 2003, a move supporters said would "help erase a stigma that has dogged the southern part of the city."
On August 11, 2014, just two days after the shooting of Michael Brown in Ferguson, Missouri, a resident of South L.A., Ezell Ford, described as "a mentally ill 25-year-old man," was fatally shot by two Los Angeles police officers (see Shooting of Ezell Ford). Since then, a number of protests focused on events in Ferguson have taken place in South Los Angeles.
After the 2008 economic recession, housing prices in South Los Angeles recovered significantly, and by 2018, many had come to see South Los Angeles as a prime target for gentrification amid rising real estate values. Residents and activists are against market-rate housing as they have concerns that these projects will encourage landlords to sell, redevelop their properties or jack up rents. Under California law, cities can't reject residential projects based on these criticisms if the project complies with applicable planning and zoning rules. The construction of the K Line light rail through the neighborhood has stimulated the building of denser multistory projects, especially around the new stations. The NFL Stadium in Inglewood also encourages gentrification according to activists.
Real estate values in South Los Angeles were further bolstered by news that Los Angeles will host the 2028 Olympics, with many of the games to be hosted on or near the USC campus.
The City of Los Angeles delineates the South Los Angeles Community Plan area as an area of 15.5 square miles. Adjacent communities include West Adams, Baldwin Hills, and Leimert Park to the west, and Southeast Los Angeles (the 26-neighborhood area east of the Harbor Freeway) on the east.
According to the Los Angeles Times Mapping Project, the South Los Angeles region comprises 51 square miles, consisting of 25 neighborhoods within the City of Los Angeles as well as three unincorporated neighborhoods in the County of Los Angeles.
Google Maps delineates a similar area to the Los Angeles Times Mapping Project with notable differences on the western border. On the northwest, it omits a section of Los Angeles west of La Brea Avenue. On the southwest, it includes a section of the City of Inglewood north of Century Boulevard.
According to the Mapping L.A. survey of the Los Angeles Times, the South Los Angeles region consists of the following neighborhoods:
By the end of the 1980s, South Los Angeles had an increasing number of Hispanics and Latinos, mostly in the northeastern section of the region.
According to scholars, "Between 1970 and 1990 the South LA area went from 80% African American and 9% Latino to 50.3% African American and 44% Latino." This massive and rapid residential demographic change occurred as resources in the area were shrinking due to global economic restructuring described above and due to the federal government's decrease in funding of urban anti-poverty and jobs programs, and other vital social services like healthcare. The socio-economic context described here increased the perception and the reality of competition amongst Asians, African Americans, and Latinos in South LA. The results from the 2000 census which show continuing demographic change coupled with recent economic trends indicating a deterioration of conditions in South LA suggest that such competition will not soon ease."
In the 2014 census, the area of South Los Angeles had a population of 271,040. 50.0% of the residents were Hispanic or Latino, 39.7% were African American.
Many African Americans from South Los Angeles have moved to Palmdale and Lancaster in the Antelope Valley.
South Los Angeles has received immigrants from Mexico and Central America.