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About Public Works

One of the primary functions of a government is to carry out public works projects. These initiatives are supported by taxes and are intended to benefit the whole community. Public works projects will help companies and citizens of a specific nation, state, or city.

When a government invests in public works projects, it stimulates the local economy and puts people back on their feet. During the project's building phase, public works might create many jobs. The total impact of public work on employment and the economy has the potential to be enormous.

A healthy economy depends on the availability of public works projects. It can often lead to more commerce and trade within communities. Also, public works projects help to improve infrastructure and make it easier for residents to get where they need to.

What Is Public Works?

Public works, also known as government-funded construction, are government-funded constructions. They are most likely supported and constructed by government agencies for recreation, public safety, and employment. It refers to a wide range of infrastructure projects, either state or federally funded.

Public works is the combination or management of all the resources, policies, and personnel required for the government to provide and maintain structures and services essential for its citizens' welfare and quality of life.

The thing about public works projects is that they may include both residential and commercial features as part of their design. Governments often offer public housing developments for various reasons, ranging from low-income housing to handicapped assisted living, and are engaged in commercial enterprises on some level or another.

Section 1720 of the California Labor Code

Section 1720 of the California Labor Code can help us define what "public works" is. As stated, it is construction, alteration, demolition, installation, or repair work that has been performed under contract and was paid in whole or in part with public funds. It may include both pre-and post-construction activities related to a public work project.

Construction includes all work done during the design and preconstruction phases. It has inspection and surveying work. Installation can include, but not be limited to, assembly and disassembly of freestanding or affixed modular office systems.

It indicates that public work is paid for with public money and funded by the government. Consequently, if any money comes from public sources, such as the state or local governments such as counties or school districts, the project is publicly funded and, therefore, a public work.

California's public laws, including the Labor Code, govern a project that is a public one. It includes its bidding process, contract administration, and construction compliance. The California Labor Code requires that an awarding body inform any contractor or employer who bids on a public-works contract that it is a public project and that the government must pay the prevailing wage.

What Is The Function Of Public Works?

Public works are facilities or projects designed to enhance the quality of life for citizens. In addition to improving access to schools and hospitals, they also supply clean drinking water and other essential supplies. Residents benefit from public transportation because it improves their access to educational possibilities and career options while lowering their commute times.

Public infrastructure building and maintenance funded by tax money helps stimulate economic growth and productivity and enhances local companies that benefit from better infrastructure in their communities. Consequently, the economy benefits from these initiatives, which pay for themselves over time by increasing the revenue base of the jurisdiction in which they are implemented.

There are several advantages to public works projects that help people and investors. They give inhabitants access to educational institutions, hospitals, safe drinking water, and other essential services that enhance their overall quality of life. The use of public transportation dramatically lowers commute times, allowing families to save both time and money.

Public works projects may provide job possibilities during the building period and enhance infrastructure that is beneficial to local companies. Tax revenues or other government sources often finance public works projects. However, international agencies such as the World Bank and the United Nations Development Programme support some of them.

Who Performs Public Works?

Municipal employees fill some public work roles, like water plant operators. Public utility employees fill them out. Still, others are filled out by employees of engineering firms or construction contractors.

In many cases, public works staff are on call. They must be prepared to react to a water main break, shovel the streets during a snowstorm, repair a sewage line, or fix power outages during a rainstorm, among other emergencies. Public works workers provide behind-the-scenes labor to ensure that inhabitants can enjoy the fundamental requirements of life and the high level of quality of life required within a municipality.

Potholes would render cars immobile if the government did not make public improvements. Because rubbish would not be collected but instead be allowed to build up, the rodent and wild animal population in residential areas would skyrocket, eventually increasing sickness and disease. As a result, public works are required for the government to continue serving the people.

Consider how fortunate you are to have access to running water, paved roadways, and power while also acknowledging the individuals that labor behind the scenes, often ceaselessly, to supply us with these basic requirements. Public works staff may not always be in the spotlight, but their work is critical to the organization's overall success.

What Is an Example of Public Works?

Public works include public structures such as municipal buildings, schools, and hospitals, among other things. Transportation infrastructure is also included, such as roads, trains, bridges, pipelines, canals, ports, and airports.

Public works are critical to cities and towns' smooth and efficient operation. Parks, beaches, and public squares are examples of public works. It also includes public services like water supply and treatment, sewage treatment, the electrical grid, and dams.

There are, however, a range of private-sector ventures that offer public services to the general population. One of the primary goals of public works is to enhance the physical infrastructure of a city or neighborhood.

About South Los Angeles, CA

In 1880, the University of Southern California, and in 1920, the Doheny Campus of Mount St. Mary's University, were founded in South Los Angeles. The 1932 and 1984 Olympic Games took place near the USC campus at neighboring Exposition Park, where the Los Angeles Coliseum is located.

Until the 1920s, the South Los Angeles neighborhood of West Adams was one of the most desirable areas of the City. As the wealthy were building stately mansions in West Adams and Jefferson Park, the White working class was establishing itself in Crenshaw and Hyde Park. Affluent blacks gradually moved into West Adams and Jefferson Park. As construction along the Wilshire Boulevard corridor gradually increased in the 1920s, the development of the city was drawn west of downtown and away from South Los Angeles.

In the eastern side of South Los Angeles (which the city calls the "Southeastern CPA") roughly east of the Harbor Freeway, the area grew southward in the late 1800s along the ever longer streetcar routes. Areas north of Slauson Boulevard were mostly built out by the late 1910s, while south of Slauson land was mostly undeveloped, much used by Chinese and Japanese Americans growing produce. In 1903, the farmers were bought out and Ascot Park racetrack was built, which turned into a "den of gambling and drinking". In the late 1910s the park was razed and freed up land for quick build-up of residential and industrial buildings in the 1920s.

"By 1940, approximately 70 percent of the black population of Los Angeles was confined to the Central Avenue corridor"; the area of modest bungalows and low-rise commercial buildings along Central Avenue emerged as the heart of the black community in southern California. Originally, the city's black community was concentrated around what is now Little Tokyo, but began moving south after 1900. It had one of the first jazz scenes in the western U.S., with trombonist Kid Ory a prominent resident. Under racially restrictive covenants, blacks were allowed to own property only within the "Slauson Box" (the area bounded by Main, Slauson, Alameda, and Washington) and in Watts, as well as in small enclaves elsewhere in the city. The working- and middle-class blacks who poured into Los Angeles during the Great Depression and in search of jobs during World War II found themselves penned into what was becoming a severely overcrowded neighborhood. During the war, blacks faced such dire housing shortages that the Housing Authority of the City of Los Angeles built the virtually all-black and Latino Pueblo Del Rio project, designed by Richard Neutra.

During this time, African Americans remained a minority alongside whites, Asians, and Hispanics; but by the 1930s those groups moved out of the area, African Americans continued to move in, and eastern South LA became majority black. Whites in previously established communities south of Slauson, east of Alameda and west of San Pedro streets persecuted blacks moving beyond established "lines", and thus blacks became effectively restricted to the area in between.

When the Supreme Court banned the legal enforcement of race-oriented restrictive covenants in 1948's Shelley v. Kraemer, blacks began to move into areas outside the increasingly overcrowded Slauson-Alameda-Washington-Main settlement area. For a time in the early 1950s, southern Los Angeles became the site of significant racial violence, with whites bombing, firing into, and burning crosses on the lawns of homes purchased by black families south of Slauson. In an escalation of behavior that began in the 1920s, white gangs in nearby cities such as South Gate and Huntington Park routinely accosted blacks who traveled through white areas. The black mutual protection clubs that formed in response to these assaults became the basis of the region's street gangs.

As in most urban areas, 1950s freeway construction radically altered the geography of southern Los Angeles. Freeway routes tended to reinforce traditional segregation lines.

Beginning in the 1970s, the rapid decline of the area's manufacturing base resulted in a loss of the jobs that had allowed skilled union workers to enjoy a middle-class lifestyle. Downtown Los Angeles' service sector, which had long been dominated by unionized African Americans earning relatively fair wages, replaced most black workers with newly arrived Mexican and Central American immigrants.

Widespread unemployment, poverty and street crime contributed to the rise of street gangs in South Central, such as the Crips and the Bloods. The gangs became even more powerful with money coming in from drugs, especially the crack cocaine trade that was dominated by gangs in the 1980s.

Paul Feldman of the Los Angeles Times wrote in 1989:

He added that they believed such "distinctive neighborhoods" as Leimert Park, Lafayette Square and the Crenshaw District were "well-removed" from South Central.

By the early 2010s, the crime rate of South Los Angeles had declined significantly. Redevelopment, improved police patrol, community-based peace programs, gang intervention work, and youth development organizations lowered the murder and crime rates to levels that had not been seen since the 1940s and '50s. Nevertheless, South Los Angeles was still known for its gangs at the time. After leading the nation in homicides again in 2002, the City Council of Los Angeles voted to change the name South Central Los Angeles to South Los Angeles on all city documents in 2003, a move supporters said would "help erase a stigma that has dogged the southern part of the city."

On August 11, 2014, just two days after the shooting of Michael Brown in Ferguson, Missouri, a resident of South L.A., Ezell Ford, described as "a mentally ill 25-year-old man," was fatally shot by two Los Angeles police officers (see Shooting of Ezell Ford). Since then, a number of protests focused on events in Ferguson have taken place in South Los Angeles.

After the 2008 economic recession, housing prices in South Los Angeles recovered significantly, and by 2018, many had come to see South Los Angeles as a prime target for gentrification amid rising real estate values. Residents and activists are against market-rate housing as they have concerns that these projects will encourage landlords to sell, redevelop their properties or jack up rents. Under California law, cities can't reject residential projects based on these criticisms if the project complies with applicable planning and zoning rules. The construction of the K Line light rail through the neighborhood has stimulated the building of denser multistory projects, especially around the new stations. The NFL Stadium in Inglewood also encourages gentrification according to activists.

Real estate values in South Los Angeles were further bolstered by news that Los Angeles will host the 2028 Olympics, with many of the games to be hosted on or near the USC campus.

The City of Los Angeles delineates the South Los Angeles Community Plan area as an area of 15.5 square miles. Adjacent communities include West Adams, Baldwin Hills, and Leimert Park to the west, and Southeast Los Angeles (the 26-neighborhood area east of the Harbor Freeway) on the east.

According to the Los Angeles Times Mapping Project, the South Los Angeles region comprises 51 square miles, consisting of 25 neighborhoods within the City of Los Angeles as well as three unincorporated neighborhoods in the County of Los Angeles.

Google Maps delineates a similar area to the Los Angeles Times Mapping Project with notable differences on the western border. On the northwest, it omits a section of Los Angeles west of La Brea Avenue. On the southwest, it includes a section of the City of Inglewood north of Century Boulevard.

According to the Mapping L.A. survey of the Los Angeles Times, the South Los Angeles region consists of the following neighborhoods:

By the end of the 1980s, South Los Angeles had an increasing number of Hispanics and Latinos, mostly in the northeastern section of the region.

According to scholars, "Between 1970 and 1990 the South LA area went from 80% African American and 9% Latino to 50.3% African American and 44% Latino." This massive and rapid residential demographic change occurred as resources in the area were shrinking due to global economic restructuring described above and due to the federal government's decrease in funding of urban anti-poverty and jobs programs, and other vital social services like healthcare. The socio-economic context described here increased the perception and the reality of competition amongst Asians, African Americans, and Latinos in South LA. The results from the 2000 census which show continuing demographic change coupled with recent economic trends indicating a deterioration of conditions in South LA suggest that such competition will not soon ease."

In the 2014 census, the area of South Los Angeles had a population of 271,040. 50.0% of the residents were Hispanic or Latino, 39.7% were African American.

Many African Americans from South Los Angeles have moved to Palmdale and Lancaster in the Antelope Valley.

South Los Angeles has received immigrants from Mexico and Central America.

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