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Los Angeles ( lawss AN-jəl-əs; Spanish: Los Ángeles [los ˈaŋxeles], lit.'The Angels'), often referred to by its initials L.A., is the commercial, financial, and cultural center of Southern California. Los Angeles is also the largest city in the state of California and the second most populous city in the United States after New York City, as well as one of the world's most populous megacities. With a population of roughly 3.9 million residents within the city limits as of 2020, Los Angeles is known for its Mediterranean climate, ethnic and cultural diversity, being the home of the Hollywood film industry, and its sprawling metropolitan area. The city lies in a basin in Southern California adjacent to the Pacific Ocean in the west and extending through the Santa Monica Mountains and north into the San Fernando Valley, with the city bordering the San Gabriel Valley to its east. It covers about 469 square miles (1,210 km), and is the county seat of Los Angeles County, which is the most populous county in the United States with an estimated 9.86 million residents as of 2022.

Home to the Chumash and Tongva indigenous peoples, the area that became Los Angeles was claimed by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo for Spain in 1542. The city was founded on September 4, 1781, under Spanish governor Felipe de Neve, on the village of Yaanga. It became a part of Mexico in 1821 following the Mexican War of Independence. In 1848, at the end of the Mexican–American War, Los Angeles and the rest of California were purchased as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, and thus became part of the United States. Los Angeles was incorporated as a municipality on April 4, 1850, five months before California achieved statehood. The discovery of oil in the 1890s brought rapid growth to the city. The city was further expanded with the completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, which delivers water from Eastern California.

Los Angeles has a diverse economy, and hosts businesses in a broad range of professional and cultural fields. It also has the busiest container port in the Americas. In 2018, the Los Angeles metropolitan area had a gross metropolitan product of over $1.0 trillion, making it the city with the third-largest GDP in the world, after New York City and Tokyo. Los Angeles hosted the 1932 and 1984 Summer Olympics and will host the 2028 Summer Olympics. More recently, statewide droughts in California have strained both the city’s and Los Angeles County’s water security.

The local English pronunciation of the name of the city has varied over time. A 1953 article in the journal of the American Name Society asserts that the pronunciation lawss AN-jəl-əs was established following the 1850 incorporation of the city and that since the 1880s the pronunciation lohss ANG-gəl-əs emerged out of a trend in California to give places Spanish, or Spanish-sounding, names and pronunciations. In 1908, librarian Charles Fletcher Lummis, who argued for the name's pronunciation with a hard g , reported that there were at least 12 pronunciation variants. In the early 1900s, the Los Angeles Times advocated for pronouncing it Loce AHNG-hayl-ais (/ls ˈɑːŋhls/), approximating Spanish [los ˈaŋxeles], by printing the respelling under its masthead for several years. This did not find favor.

Since the 1930s, has been most common. In 1934, the United States Board on Geographic Names decreed that this pronunciation be used. This was also endorsed in 1952 by a "jury" appointed by Mayor Fletcher Bowron to devise an official pronunciation.

The Los Angeles coastal area was settled by the Tongva (Gabrieleño) and Chumash tribes. Los Angeles would eventually be founded on the village of iyáanga’ or Yaanga (written "Yang-na" by the Spanish), meaning "poison oak place".

Maritime explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area of southern California for the Spanish Empire in 1542 while on an official military exploring expedition moving northward along the Pacific coast from earlier colonizing bases of New Spain in Central and South America. Gaspar de Portolà and Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí reached the present site of Los Angeles on August 2, 1769.

In 1771, Franciscan friar Junípero Serra directed the building of the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, the first mission in the area. On September 4, 1781, a group of forty-four settlers known as "Los Pobladores" founded the pueblo (town) they called El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles, 'The Town of Our Lady the Queen of the Angels'. The original name of the settlement is disputed; the Guinness Book of World Records rendered it as "El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles de Porciúncula"; other sources have shortened or alternate versions of the longer name. The present-day city has the largest Roman Catholic archdiocese in the United States. Two-thirds of the Mexican or (New Spain) settlers were mestizo or mulatto, a mixture of African, indigenous and European ancestry. The settlement remained a small ranch town for decades, but by 1820, the population had increased to about 650 residents. Today, the pueblo is commemorated in the historic district of Los Angeles Pueblo Plaza and Olvera Street, the oldest part of Los Angeles.

New Spain achieved its independence from the Spanish Empire in 1821, and the pueblo now existed within the new Mexican Republic. During Mexican rule, Governor Pío Pico made Los Angeles, Alta California's regional capital. By this time, the new republic introduced more secularization acts within the Los Angeles region. In 1846, during the wider Mexican-American war, marines from the United States occupied the pueblo. This resulted in the siege of Los Angeles where 150 Mexican militias fought the occupiers which eventually surrendered.

Mexican rule ended during the Mexican–American War: Americans took control from the Californios after a series of battles, culminating with the signing of the Treaty of Cahuenga on January 13, 1847.

Railroads arrived with the completion of the transcontinental Southern Pacific line from New Orleans to Los Angeles in 1876 and the Santa Fe Railroad in 1885. Petroleum was discovered in the city and surrounding area in 1892, and by 1923, the discoveries had helped California become the country's largest oil producer, accounting for about one-quarter of the world's petroleum output.

By 1900, the population had grown to more than 102,000, putting pressure on the city's water supply. The completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, under the supervision of William Mulholland, ensured the continued growth of the city. Because of clauses in the city's charter that prevented the City of Los Angeles from selling or providing water from the aqueduct to any area outside its borders, many adjacent cities and communities felt compelled to join Los Angeles.

Los Angeles created the first municipal zoning ordinance in the United States. On September 14, 1908, the Los Angeles City Council promulgated residential and industrial land use zones. The new ordinance established three residential zones of a single type, where industrial uses were prohibited. The proscriptions included barns, lumber yards, and any industrial land use employing machine-powered equipment. These laws were enforced against industrial properties after the fact. These prohibitions were in addition to existing activities that were already regulated as nuisances. These included explosives warehousing, gas works, oil drilling, slaughterhouses, and tanneries. Los Angeles City Council also designated seven industrial zones within the city. However, between 1908 and 1915, the Los Angeles City Council created various exceptions to the broad proscriptions that applied to these three residential zones, and as a consequence, some industrial uses emerged within them. There are two differences between the 1908 Residence District Ordinance and later zoning laws in the United States. First, the 1908 laws did not establish a comprehensive zoning map as the 1916 New York City Zoning Ordinance did. Second, the residential zones did not distinguish types of housing; they treated apartments, hotels, and detached-single-family housing equally.

In 1910, Hollywood merged into Los Angeles, with 10 movie companies already operating in the city at the time. By 1921, more than 80 percent of the world's film industry was concentrated in L.A. The money generated by the industry kept the city insulated from much of the economic loss suffered by the rest of the country during the Great Depression. By 1930, the population surpassed one million. In 1932, the city hosted the Summer Olympics.

During World War II Los Angeles was a major center of wartime manufacturing, such as shipbuilding and aircraft. Calship built hundreds of Liberty Ships and Victory Ships on Terminal Island, and the Los Angeles area was the headquarters of six of the country's major aircraft manufacturers (Douglas Aircraft Company, Hughes Aircraft, Lockheed, North American Aviation, Northrop Corporation, and Vultee). During the war, more aircraft were produced in one year than in all the pre-war years since the Wright brothers flew the first airplane in 1903, combined. Manufacturing in Los Angeles skyrocketed, and as William S. Knudsen, of the National Defense Advisory Commission put it, "We won because we smothered the enemy in an avalanche of production, the like of which he had never seen, nor dreamed possible."

After the end of World War II Los Angeles grew more rapidly than ever, sprawling into the San Fernando Valley. The expansion of the Interstate Highway System during the 1950s and 1960s helped propel suburban growth and signaled the demise of the city's electrified rail system, once the world's largest.
As a consequence of World War II, suburban growth, and population density, many amusement parks were built and operated in this area. An example is Beverly Park, which was located at the corner of Beverly Boulevard and La Cienega before being closed and substituted by the Beverly Center.

Racial tensions led to the Watts riots in 1965, resulting in 34 deaths and over 1,000 injuries.

In 1969, California became the birthplace of the Internet, as the first ARPANET transmission was sent from the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) to the Stanford Research Institute in Menlo Park.

In 1973, Tom Bradley was elected as the city's first African American mayor, serving for five terms until retiring in 1993. Other events in the city during the 1970s included the Symbionese Liberation Army's South Central standoff in 1974 and the Hillside Stranglers murder cases in 1977–1978.

In early 1984, the city surpassed Chicago in population, thus becoming the second largest city in the United States.

In 1984, the city hosted the Summer Olympic Games for the second time. Despite being boycotted by 14 Communist countries, the 1984 Olympics became more financially successful than any previous, and the second Olympics to turn a profit; the other, according to an analysis of contemporary newspaper reports, was the 1932 Summer Olympics, also held in Los Angeles.

Racial tensions erupted on April 29, 1992, with the acquittal by a Simi Valley jury of four Los Angeles Police Department (LAPD) officers captured on videotape beating Rodney King, culminating in large-scale riots.

In 1994, the magnitude 6.7 Northridge earthquake shook the city, causing $12.5 billion in damage and 72 deaths. The century ended with the Rampart scandal, one of the most extensive documented cases of police misconduct in American history.

In 2002, Mayor James Hahn led the campaign against secession, resulting in voters defeating efforts by the San Fernando Valley and Hollywood to secede from the city.

In 2022, Karen Bass became the city's first female mayor, making Los Angeles the largest US city to have ever had a woman as mayor.

Los Angeles will host the 2028 Summer Olympics and Paralympic Games, making Los Angeles the third city to host the Olympics three times.

The city of Los Angeles covers a total area of 502.7 square miles (1,302 km), comprising 468.7 square miles (1,214 km2) of land and 34.0 square miles (88 km) of water. The city extends for 44 miles (71 km) north-south and for 29 miles (47 km) east-west. The perimeter of the city is 342 miles (550 km).

Los Angeles is both flat and hilly. The highest point in the city proper is Mount Lukens at 5,074 ft (1,547 m), located at the northeastern end of the San Fernando Valley. The eastern end of the Santa Monica Mountains stretches from Downtown to the Pacific Ocean and separates the Los Angeles Basin from the San Fernando Valley. Other hilly parts of Los Angeles include the Mt. Washington area north of Downtown, eastern parts such as Boyle Heights, the Crenshaw district around the Baldwin Hills, and the San Pedro district.

Surrounding the city are much higher mountains. Immediately to the north lie the San Gabriel Mountains, which is a popular recreation area for Angelenos. Its high point is Mount San Antonio, locally known as Mount Baldy, which reaches 10,064 feet (3,068 m). Further afield, the highest point in southern California is San Gorgonio Mountain, 81 miles (130 km) east of downtown Los Angeles, with a height of 11,503 feet (3,506 m).

The Los Angeles River, which is largely seasonal, is the primary drainage channel. It was straightened and lined in 51 miles (82 km) of concrete by the Army Corps of Engineers to act as a flood control channel. The river begins in the Canoga Park district of the city, flows east from the San Fernando Valley along the north edge of the Santa Monica Mountains, and turns south through the city center, flowing to its mouth in the Port of Long Beach at the Pacific Ocean. The smaller Ballona Creek flows into the Santa Monica Bay at Playa del Rey.

Los Angeles is rich in native plant species partly because of its diversity of habitats, including beaches, wetlands, and mountains. The most prevalent plant communities are coastal sage scrub, chaparral shrubland, and riparian woodland. Native plants include: the California poppy, matilija poppy, toyon, Ceanothus, Chamise, Coast Live Oak, sycamore, willow and Giant Wildrye. Many of these native species, such as the Los Angeles sunflower, have become so rare as to be considered endangered. Although it is not native to the area, the official tree of Los Angeles is the Coral Tree (Erythrina caffra) and the official flower of Los Angeles is the Bird of Paradise (Strelitzia reginae). Mexican Fan Palms, Canary Island Palms, Queen Palms, Date Palms, and California Fan Palms are common in the Los Angeles area, although only the last is native to California, though still not native to the City of Los Angeles.

Los Angeles is subject to earthquakes because of its location on the Pacific Ring of Fire. The geologic instability has produced numerous faults, which cause approximately 10,000 earthquakes annually in Southern California, though most of them are too small to be felt. The strike-slip San Andreas Fault system, which sits at the boundary between the Pacific Plate and the North American Plate, passes through the Los Angeles metropolitan area. The segment of the fault passing through Southern California experiences a major earthquake roughly every 110 to 140 years, and seismologists have warned about the next "big one", as the last major earthquake was the 1857 Fort Tejon earthquake. The Los Angeles basin and metropolitan area are also at risk from blind thrust earthquakes. Major earthquakes that have hit the Los Angeles area include the 1933 Long Beach, 1971 San Fernando, 1987 Whittier Narrows, and the 1994 Northridge events. All but a few are of low intensity and are not felt. The USGS has released the UCERF California earthquake forecast, which models earthquake occurrence in California. Parts of the city are also vulnerable to tsunamis; harbor areas were damaged by waves from Aleutian Islands earthquake in 1946, Valdivia earthquake in 1960, Alaska earthquake in 1964, Chile earthquake in 2010 and Japan earthquake in 2011.

The city is divided into many different districts and neighborhoods, some of which were incorporated cities that have merged with Los Angeles. These neighborhoods were developed piecemeal, and are well-defined enough that the city has signage which marks nearly all of them.

The city's street patterns generally follow a grid plan, with uniform block lengths and occasional roads that cut across blocks. However, this is complicated by rugged terrain, which has necessitated having different grids for each of the valleys that Los Angeles covers. Major streets are designed to move large volumes of traffic through many parts of the city, many of which are extremely long; Sepulveda Boulevard is 43 miles (69 km) long, while Foothill Boulevard is over 60 miles (97 km) long, reaching as far east as San Bernardino. Drivers in Los Angeles suffer from one of the worst rush hour periods in the world, according to an annual traffic index by navigation system maker, TomTom. LA drivers spend an additional 92 hours in traffic each year. During the peak rush hour, there is 80% congestion, according to the index.

Los Angeles is often characterized by the presence of low-rise buildings, in contrast to New York City. Outside of a few centers such as Downtown, Warner Center, Century City, Koreatown, Miracle Mile, Hollywood, and Westwood, skyscrapers and high-rise buildings are not common in Los Angeles. The few skyscrapers built outside of those areas often stand out above the rest of the surrounding landscape. Most construction is done in separate units, rather than wall-to-wall. That being said Downtown Los Angeles itself has many buildings over 30 stories, with fourteen over 50 stories, and two over 70 stories, the tallest of which is the Wilshire Grand Center. Also Los Angeles is increasingly becoming a city of apartments rather than single-family dwellings, especially in the dense inner city and Westside neighborhoods.

Los Angeles has a two-season Mediterranean climate of dry summer and very mild winter (Köppen Csb on the coast and most of downtown, Csa near the metropolitan region to the west), and receives just enough annual precipitation to avoid being classified as a semi-arid climate (BSh). Daytime temperatures are generally temperate all year round. In winter, they average around 68 °F (20 °C) giving it a tropical feel although it is a few degrees too cool to be a true tropical climate on average due to cool night temperatures. Los Angeles has plenty of sunshine throughout the year, with an average of only 35 days with measurable precipitation annually.

Temperatures in the coastal basin exceed 90 °F (32 °C) on a dozen or so days in the year, from one day a month in April, May, June and November to three days a month in July, August, October and to five days in September. Temperatures in the San Fernando and San Gabriel Valleys are considerably warmer. Temperatures are subject to substantial daily swings; in inland areas the difference between the average daily low and the average daily high is over 30 °F (17 °C). The average annual temperature of the sea is 63 °F (17 °C), from 58 °F (14 °C) in January to 68 °F (20 °C) in August. Hours of sunshine total more than 3,000 per year, from an average of 7 hours of sunshine per day in December to an average of 12 in July.

The Los Angeles area is also subject to phenomena typical of a microclimate, causing extreme variations in temperature in close physical proximity to each other. For example, the average July maximum temperature at the Santa Monica Pier is 70 °F (21 °C) whereas it is 95 °F (35 °C) in Canoga Park, 15 miles (24 km) away. The city, like much of the Southern Californian coast, is subject to a late spring/early summer weather phenomenon called "June Gloom". This involves overcast or foggy skies in the morning that yield to sun by early afternoon.

More recently, statewide droughts in California have further strained the city's water security. Downtown Los Angeles averages 14.67 in (373 mm) of precipitation annually, mainly occurring between November and March, generally in the form of moderate rain showers, but sometimes as heavy rainfall during winter storms. Rainfall is usually higher in the hills and coastal slopes of the mountains because of orographic uplift. Summer days are usually rainless. Rarely, an incursion of moist air from the south or east can bring brief thunderstorms in late summer, especially to the mountains. The coast gets slightly less rainfall, while the inland and mountain areas get considerably more. Years of average rainfall are rare. The usual pattern is a year-to-year variability, with a short string of dry years of 5–10 in (130–250 mm) rainfall, followed by one or two wet years with more than 20 in (510 mm). Wet years are usually associated with warm water El Niño conditions in the Pacific, dry years with cooler water La Niña episodes. A series of rainy days can bring floods to the lowlands and mudslides to the hills, especially after wildfires have denuded the slopes.

Both freezing temperatures and snowfall are extremely rare in the city basin and along the coast, with the last occurrence of a 32 °F (0 °C) reading at the downtown station being January 29, 1979; freezing temperatures occur nearly every year in valley locations while the mountains within city limits typically receive snowfall every winter. The greatest snowfall recorded in downtown Los Angeles was 2.0 inches (5 cm) on January 15, 1932. While the most recent snowfall occurred in February 2019, the first snowfall since 1962, with snow falling in areas adjacent to Los Angeles as recently as January 2021. At the official downtown station, the highest recorded temperature is 113 °F (45 °C) on September 27, 2010, while the lowest is 28 °F (−2 °C), on January 4, 1949. Within the City of Los Angeles, the highest temperature ever officially recorded is 121 °F (49 °C), on September 6, 2020, at the weather station at Pierce College in the San Fernando Valley neighborhood of Woodland Hills. During autumn and winter, Santa Ana winds sometimes bring much warmer and drier conditions to Los Angeles, and raise wildfire risk.

A Gabrielino settlement in the area was called iyáangẚ (written Yang-na by the Spanish), which has been translated as "poison oak place". Yang-na has also been translated as "the valley of smoke". Owing to geography, heavy reliance on automobiles, and the Los Angeles/Long Beach port complex, Los Angeles suffers from air pollution in the form of smog. The Los Angeles Basin and the San Fernando Valley are susceptible to atmospheric inversion, which holds in the exhausts from road vehicles, airplanes, locomotives, shipping, manufacturing, and other sources. The percentage of small particle pollution (the kind that penetrates into the lungs) coming from vehicles in the city can get as high as 55 percent.[citation needed]

The smog season lasts from approximately May to October. While other large cities rely on rain to clear smog, Los Angeles gets only 15 inches (380 mm) of rain each year: pollution accumulates over many consecutive days. Issues of air quality in Los Angeles and other major cities led to the passage of early national environmental legislation, including the Clean Air Act. When the act was passed, California was unable to create a State Implementation Plan that would enable it to meet the new air quality standards, largely because of the level of pollution in Los Angeles generated by older vehicles. More recently, the state of California has led the nation in working to limit pollution by mandating low-emission vehicles. Smog is expected to continue to drop in the coming years because of aggressive steps to reduce it, which include electric and hybrid cars, improvements in mass transit, and other measures.

The number of Stage 1 smog alerts in Los Angeles has declined from over 100 per year in the 1970s to almost zero in the new millennium. Despite improvement, the 2006 and 2007 annual reports of the American Lung Association ranked the city as the most polluted in the country with short-term particle pollution and year-round particle pollution. In 2008, the city was ranked the second most polluted and again had the highest year-round particulate pollution. The city met its goal of providing 20 percent of the city's power from renewable sources in 2010. The American Lung Association's 2013 survey ranks the metro area as having the nation's worst smog, and fourth in both short-term and year-round pollution amounts.

Los Angeles is also home to the nation's largest urban oil field. There are more than 700 active oil wells within 1,500 feet (460 m) of homes, churches, schools and hospitals in the city, a situation about which the EPA has voiced serious concerns.

The city has an urban population of bobcats (Lynx rufus). Mange is a common problem in this population. Although Serieys et al. 2014 find selection of immune genetics at several loci they do not demonstrate that this produces a real difference which helps the bobcats to survive future mange outbreaks.

The 2010 U.S. census reported Los Angeles had a population of 3,792,621. The population density was 8,092.3 people per square mile (2,913.0/km). The age distribution was 874,525 people (23.1%) under 18, 434,478 people (11.5%) from 18 to 24, 1,209,367 people (31.9%) from 25 to 44, 877,555 people (23.1%) from 45 to 64, and 396,696 people (10.5%) who were 65 or older. The median age was 34.1 years. For every 100 females, there were 99.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.6 males.

There were 1,413,995 housing units—up from 1,298,350 during 2005–2009—at an average density of 2,812.8 households per square mile (1,086.0/km2), of which 503,863 (38.2%) were owner-occupied, and 814,305 (61.8%) were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 2.1%; the rental vacancy rate was 6.1%. 1,535,444 people (40.5% of the population) lived in owner-occupied housing units and 2,172,576 people (57.3%) lived in rental housing units.

According to the 2010 United States Census, Los Angeles had a median household income of $49,497, with 22.0% of the population living below the federal poverty line.

According to the 2010 census, the racial makeup of Los Angeles included: 1,888,158 Whites (49.8%), 365,118 African Americans (9.6%), 28,215 Native Americans (0.7%), 426,959 Asians (11.3%), 5,577 Pacific Islanders (0.1%), 902,959 from other races (23.8%), and 175,635 (4.6%) from two or more races. Hispanics or Latinos of any race were 1,838,822 persons (48.5%). Los Angeles is home to people from more than 140 countries speaking 224 different identified languages. Ethnic enclaves like Chinatown, Historic Filipinotown, Koreatown, Little Armenia, Little Ethiopia, Tehrangeles, Little Tokyo, Little Bangladesh, and Thai Town provide examples of the polyglot character of Los Angeles.

Non-Hispanic Whites were 28.7% of the population in 2010, compared to 86.3% in 1940. The majority of the Non-Hispanic White population is living in areas along the Pacific coast as well as in neighborhoods near and on the Santa Monica Mountains from the Pacific Palisades to Los Feliz.

Mexican ancestry make up the largest ethnic group of Hispanics at 31.9% of the city's population, followed by those of Salvadoran (6.0%) and Guatemalan (3.6%) heritage. The Hispanic population has a long established Mexican-American and Central American community and is spread well-nigh throughout the entire city of Los Angeles and its metropolitan area. It is most heavily concentrated in regions around Downtown as East Los Angeles, Northeast Los Angeles and Westlake. Furthermore, a vast majority of residents in neighborhoods in eastern South Los Angeles towards Downey are of Hispanic origin.

The largest Asian ethnic groups are Filipinos (3.2%) and Koreans (2.9%), which have their own established ethnic enclaves—Koreatown in the Wilshire Center and Historic Filipinotown. Chinese people, which make up 1.8% of Los Angeles's population, reside mostly outside of Los Angeles city limits and rather in the San Gabriel Valley of eastern Los Angeles County, but make a sizable presence in the city, notably in Chinatown. Chinatown and Thaitown are also home to many Thais and Cambodians, which make up 0.3% and 0.1% of Los Angeles's population, respectively. The Japanese comprise 0.9% of LA's population and have an established Little Tokyo in the city's downtown, and another significant community of Japanese Americans is in the Sawtelle district of West Los Angeles. Vietnamese make up 0.5% of Los Angeles's population. Indians make up 0.9% of the city's population. The city is also home to Armenians, Assyrians, and Iranians, many of whom live in enclaves like Little Armenia and Tehrangeles.

African Americans have been the predominant ethnic group in South Los Angeles, which has emerged as the largest African American community in the western United States since the 1960s. The neighborhoods of South Los Angeles with highest concentration of African Americans include Crenshaw, Baldwin Hills, Leimert Park, Hyde Park, Gramercy Park, Manchester Square and Watts. Apart from South Los Angeles, neighborhoods in the Central region of Los Angeles, as Mid-City and Mid-Wilshire have a moderate concentration of African Americans as well.[citation needed]

Los Angeles has the second largest Mexican, Armenian, Salvadoran, Filipino and Guatemalan population by city in the world, the third largest Canadian population in the world, and has the largest Japanese, Iranian/Persian, Cambodian and Romani (Gypsy) population in the country.

There is an Italian community in Los Angeles. Italians are concentrated in San Pedro.

According to a 2014 study by the Pew Research Center, Christianity is the most prevalently practiced religion in Los Angeles (65%). The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Los Angeles is the largest archdiocese in the country. Cardinal Roger Mahony, as the archbishop, oversaw construction of the Cathedral of Our Lady of the Angels, which opened in September 2002 in Downtown Los Angeles.

In 2011, the once common, but ultimately lapsed, custom of conducting a procession and Mass in honor of Nuestra Señora de los Ángeles, in commemoration of the founding of the City of Los Angeles in 1781, was revived by the Queen of Angels Foundation and its founder Mark Albert, with the support of the Archdiocese of Los Angeles as well as several civic leaders. The recently revived custom is a continuation of the original processions and Masses that commenced on the first anniversary of the founding of Los Angeles in 1782 and continued for nearly a century thereafter.

With 621,000 Jews in the metropolitan area, the region has the second-largest population of Jews in the United States, after New York City. Many of Los Angeles's Jews now live on the Westside and in the San Fernando Valley, though Boyle Heights once had a large Jewish population prior to World War II due to restrictive housing covenants. Major Orthodox Jewish neighborhoods include Hancock Park, Pico-Robertson, and Valley Village, while Jewish Israelis are well represented in the Encino and Tarzana neighborhoods, and Persian Jews in Beverly Hills. Many varieties of Judaism are represented in the greater Los Angeles area, including Reform, Conservative, Orthodox, and Reconstructionist. The Breed Street Shul in East Los Angeles, built in 1923, was the largest synagogue west of Chicago in its early decades; it is no longer in daily use as a synagogue and is being converted to a museum and community center. The Kabbalah Centre also has a presence in the city.

The International Church of the Foursquare Gospel was founded in Los Angeles by Aimee Semple McPherson in 1923 and remains headquartered there to this day. For many years, the church convened at Angelus Temple, which, at its construction, was one of the largest churches in the country.

Los Angeles has had a rich and influential Protestant tradition. The first Protestant service in Los Angeles was a Methodist meeting held in a private home in 1850 and the oldest Protestant church still operating, First Congregational Church, was founded in 1867. In the early 1900s the Bible Institute Of Los Angeles published the founding documents of the Christian Fundamentalist movement and the Azusa Street Revival launched Pentecostalism. The Metropolitan Community Church also had its origins in the Los Angeles area. Important churches in the city include First Presbyterian Church of Hollywood, Bel Air Presbyterian Church, First African Methodist Episcopal Church of Los Angeles, West Angeles Church of God in Christ, Second Baptist Church, Crenshaw Christian Center, McCarty Memorial Christian Church, and First Congregational Church.

The Los Angeles California Temple, the second-largest temple operated by the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, is on Santa Monica Boulevard in the Westwood neighborhood of Los Angeles. Dedicated in 1956, it was the first temple of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints built in California and it was the largest in the world when completed.

The Hollywood region of Los Angeles also has several significant headquarters, churches, and the Celebrity Center of Scientology.

Because of Los Angeles's large multi-ethnic population, a wide variety of faiths are practiced, including Buddhism, Hinduism, Islam, Zoroastrianism, Sikhism, Baháʼí, various Eastern Orthodox Churches, Sufism, Shintoism, Taoism, Confucianism, Chinese folk religion and countless others. Immigrants from Asia for example, have formed a number of significant Buddhist congregations making the city home to the greatest variety of Buddhists in the world. The first Buddhist joss house was founded in the city in 1875. Atheism and other secular beliefs are also common, as the city is the largest in the Western U.S. Unchurched Belt.

As of January 2020, there are 41,290 homeless people in the City of Los Angeles, comprising roughly 62% of the homeless population of LA County. This is an increase of 14.2% over the previous year (with a 12.7% increase in the overall homeless population of LA County). The epicenter of homelessness in Los Angeles is the Skid Row neighborhood, which contains 8,000 homeless people, one of the largest stable populations of homeless people in the United States. The increased homeless population in Los Angeles has been attributed to lack of housing affordability and to substance abuse. Almost 60 percent of the 82,955 people who became newly homeless in 2019 said their homelessness was because of economic hardship. In Los Angeles, black people are roughly four times more likely to experience homelessness.

In 1992, the city of Los Angeles recorded 1,092 murders. Los Angeles experienced a significant decline in crime in the 1990s and late 2000s and reached a 50-year low in 2009 with 314 homicides. This is a rate of 7.85 per 100,000 population—a major decrease from 1980 when a homicide rate of 34.2 per 100,000 was reported. This included 15 officer-involved shootings. One shooting led to the death of a SWAT team member, Randal Simmons, the first in LAPD's history. Los Angeles in the year of 2013 totaled 251 murders, a decrease of 16 percent from the previous year. Police speculate the drop resulted from a number of factors, including young people spending more time online. In 2021, murders rose to the highest level since 2008 and there were 348.

In 2015, it was revealed that the LAPD had been under-reporting crime for eight years, making the crime rate in the city appear much lower than it really is.

The Dragna crime family and the Cohen crime family dominated organized crime in the city during the Prohibition era and reached its peak during the 1940s and 1950s with the battle of Sunset Strip as part of the American Mafia, but has gradually declined since then with the rise of various black and Hispanic gangs in the late 1960s and early 1970s.

According to the Los Angeles Police Department, the city is home to 45,000 gang members, organized into 450 gangs. Among them are the Crips and Bloods, which are both African American street gangs that originated in the South Los Angeles region. Latino street gangs such as the Sureños, a Mexican American street gang, and Mara Salvatrucha, which has mainly members of Salvadoran descent, all originated in Los Angeles. This has led to the city being referred to as the "Gang Capital of America".

The economy of Los Angeles is driven by international trade, entertainment (television, motion pictures, video games, music recording, and production), aerospace, technology, petroleum, fashion, apparel, and tourism. Other significant industries include finance, telecommunications, law, healthcare, and transportation. In the 2017 Global Financial Centres Index, Los Angeles was ranked as having the 19th most competitive financial center in the world, and sixth most competitive in the United States (after New York City, San Francisco, Chicago, Boston, and Washington, D.C.).

One of the five major film studios, Paramount Pictures, is within the city limits, its location being part of the so-called "Thirty-Mile Zone" of entertainment headquarters in Southern California.

Los Angeles is the largest manufacturing center in the United States. The contiguous ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach together comprise the busiest port in the United States by some measures and the fifth-busiest port in the world, vital to trade within the Pacific Rim.

The Los Angeles metropolitan area has a gross metropolitan product of over $1.0 trillion (as of 2018), making it the third-largest economic metropolitan area in the world after Tokyo and New York. Los Angeles has been classified an "alpha world city" according to a 2012 study by a group at Loughborough University.

The Department of Cannabis Regulation enforces cannabis legislation after the legalization of the sale and distribution of cannabis in 2016. As of October 2019, more than 300 existing cannabis businesses (both retailers and their suppliers) have been granted approval to operate in what is considered the nation's largest market.

As of 2018, Los Angeles is home to three Fortune 500 companies: AECOM, CBRE Group, and Reliance Steel & Aluminum Co. Other companies headquartered in Los Angeles and the surrounding metropolitan area include The Aerospace Corporation, California Pizza Kitchen, Capital Group Companies, Deluxe Entertainment Services Group, Dine Brands Global, DreamWorks Animation, Dollar Shave Club, Fandango Media, Farmers Insurance Group, Forever 21, Hulu, Panda Express, SpaceX, Ubisoft Film & Television, The Walt Disney Company, Universal Pictures, Warner Bros., Warner Music Group, and Trader Joe's.

Los Angeles is often billed as the "Creative Capital of the World" because one in every six of its residents works in a creative industry and there are more artists, writers, filmmakers, actors, dancers and musicians living and working in Los Angeles than any other city at any other time in world history.

The city's Hollywood neighborhood has been recognized as the center of the motion picture industry, having held this distinction since the early 20th century, and the Los Angeles area is also associated with being the center of the television industry. The city is home to major film studios as well as major record labels. Los Angeles plays host to the annual Academy Awards, the Primetime Emmy Awards, the Grammy Awards as well as many other entertainment industry awards shows. Los Angeles is the site of the USC School of Cinematic Arts which is the oldest film school in the United States.

The performing arts play a major role in Los Angeles's cultural identity. According to the USC Stevens Institute for Innovation, "there are more than 1,100 annual theatrical productions and 21 openings every week." The Los Angeles Music Center is "one of the three largest performing arts centers in the nation", with more than 1.3 million visitors per year. The Walt Disney Concert Hall, centerpiece of the Music Center, is home to the prestigious Los Angeles Philharmonic. Notable organizations such as Center Theatre Group, the Los Angeles Master Chorale, and the Los Angeles Opera are also resident companies of the Music Center. Talent is locally cultivated at premier institutions such as the Colburn School and the USC Thornton School of Music.

There are 841 museums and art galleries in Los Angeles County, more museums per capita than any other city in the U.S. Some of the notable museums are the Los Angeles County Museum of Art (the largest art museum in the Western United States), the Getty Center (part of the J. Paul Getty Trust, the world's wealthiest art institution), the Petersen Automotive Museum, the Huntington Library, the Natural History Museum, the Battleship Iowa, and the Museum of Contemporary Art. A significant number of art galleries are on Gallery Row, and tens of thousands attend the monthly Downtown Art Walk there.

The Los Angeles Public Library system operates 72 public libraries in the city. Enclaves of unincorporated areas are served by branches of the County of Los Angeles Public Library, many of which are within walking distance to residents.

Important landmarks in Los Angeles include the Hollywood Sign, Walt Disney Concert Hall, Capitol Records Building, the Cathedral of Our Lady of the Angels, Angels Flight, Grauman's Chinese Theatre, Dolby Theatre, Griffith Observatory, Getty Center, Getty Villa, Stahl House, the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum, L.A. Live, the Los Angeles County Museum of Art, the Venice Canal Historic District and boardwalk, Theme Building, Bradbury Building, U.S. Bank Tower, Wilshire Grand Center, Hollywood Boulevard, Los Angeles City Hall, Hollywood Bowl, battleship USS Iowa, Watts Towers, Staples Center, Dodger Stadium, and Olvera Street.

Los Angeles's food culture is a fusion of global cuisine brought on by the city's rich immigrant history and population. Latin American immigrants, particularly Mexican immigrants, brought tacos, burritos, quesadillas, tortas, tamales, and enchiladas served from food trucks and stands, taquerias, and cafés. Asian restaurants, many immigrant-owned, exist throughout the city with hotspots in Chinatown, Koreatown, and Little Tokyo. Los Angeles also carries an outsized offering of vegan, vegetarian, and plant-based options. As of 2022, the Michelin Guide recognized 10 restaurants granting 2 restaurants two stars and eight restaurants one star.

The city of Los Angeles and its metropolitan area are the home of eleven top-level professional sports teams, several of which play in neighboring communities but use Los Angeles in their name. These teams include the Los Angeles Dodgers and Los Angeles Angels of Major League Baseball (MLB), the Los Angeles Rams and Los Angeles Chargers of the National Football League (NFL), the Los Angeles Lakers and Los Angeles Clippers of the National Basketball Association (NBA), the Los Angeles Kings and Anaheim Ducks of the National Hockey League (NHL), the Los Angeles Galaxy and Los Angeles FC of Major League Soccer (MLS), and the Los Angeles Sparks of the Women's National Basketball Association (WNBA).

Other notable sports teams include the UCLA Bruins and the USC Trojans in the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA), both of which are Division I teams in the Pac-12 Conference, but will soon be moved to the Big Ten Conference.

Los Angeles is the second-largest city in the United States but hosted no NFL team between 1995 and 2015. At one time, the Los Angeles area hosted two NFL teams: the Rams and the Raiders. Both left the city in 1995, with the Rams moving to St. Louis, and the Raiders moving back to their original home of Oakland. After 21 seasons in St. Louis, on January 12, 2016, the NFL announced the Rams would be moving back to Los Angeles for the 2016 NFL season with its home games played at the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum for four seasons. Prior to 1995, the Rams played their home games in the Coliseum from 1946 to 1979 which made them the first professional sports team to play in Los Angeles, and then moved to Anaheim Stadium from 1980 until 1994. The San Diego Chargers announced on January 12, 2017, that they would also relocate back to Los Angeles (the first since its inaugural season in 1960) and become the Los Angeles Chargers beginning in the 2017 NFL season and played at Dignity Health Sports Park in Carson, California for three seasons. The Rams and the Chargers would soon move to the newly built SoFi Stadium, located in nearby Inglewood during the 2020 season.

Los Angeles boasts a number of sports venues, including Dodger Stadium, the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum, BMO Stadium and the Crypto.com Arena. The Forum, SoFi Stadium, Dignity Health Sports Park, the Rose Bowl, Angel Stadium, and the Honda Center are also in adjacent cities and cities in Los Angeles's metropolitan area.

Los Angeles has twice hosted the Summer Olympic Games: in 1932 and in 1984, and will host the games for a third time in 2028. Los Angeles will be the third city after London (1908, 1948 and 2012) and Paris (1900, 1924 and 2024) to host the Olympic Games three times. When the tenth Olympic Games were hosted in 1932, the former 10th Street was renamed Olympic Blvd. Los Angeles also hosted the Deaflympics in 1985 and Special Olympics World Summer Games in 2015.

8 NFL Super Bowls were also held in the city and its surrounding areas- 2 at the Memorial Coliseum (the first Super Bowl, I and VII), 5 at the Rose Bowl in suburban Pasadena (XI, XIV, XVII, XXI, and XXVII), and 1 at the suburban Inglewood (LVI) . The Rose Bowl also hosts an annual and highly prestigious NCAA college football game called the Rose Bowl, which happens every New Year's Day.

Los Angeles also hosted 8 FIFA World Cup soccer games at the Rose Bowl in 1994, including the final, where Brazil won. The Rose Bowl also hosted 4 matches in the 1999 FIFA Women's World Cup, including the final, where the United States won against China on penalty kicks. This was the game where Brandi Chastain took her shirt off after she scored the tournament-winning penalty kick, creating an iconic image. Los Angeles will be one of eleven US host cities for the 2026 FIFA World Cup with matches set to be held at SoFi Stadium.

Los Angeles is one of six North American cities to have won championships in all five of its major leagues (MLB, NFL, NHL, NBA and MLS), having completed the feat with the Kings' 2012 Stanley Cup title.

Los Angeles is a charter city as opposed to a general law city. The current charter was adopted on June 8, 1999, and has been amended many times. The elected government consists of the Los Angeles City Council and the mayor of Los Angeles, which operate under a mayor–council government, as well as the city attorney (not to be confused with the district attorney, a county office) and controller. The mayor is Karen Bass. There are 15 city council districts.

The city has many departments and appointed officers, including the Los Angeles Police Department (LAPD), the Los Angeles Board of Police Commissioners, the Los Angeles Fire Department (LAFD), the Housing Authority of the City of Los Angeles (HACLA), the Los Angeles Department of Transportation (LADOT), and the Los Angeles Public Library (LAPL).

The charter of the City of Los Angeles ratified by voters in 1999 created a system of advisory neighborhood councils that would represent the diversity of stakeholders, defined as those who live, work or own property in the neighborhood. The neighborhood councils are relatively autonomous and spontaneous in that they identify their own boundaries, establish their own bylaws, and elect their own officers. There are about 90 neighborhood councils.

Residents of Los Angeles elect supervisors for the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th supervisorial districts.

In the California State Assembly, Los Angeles is split between fourteen districts. In the California State Senate, the city is split between eight districts. In the United States House of Representatives, it is split among ten congressional districts.

There are three public universities within the city limits: California State University, Los Angeles (CSULA), California State University, Northridge (CSUN) and University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA).

Private colleges in the city include:

The community college system consists of nine campuses governed by the trustees of the Los Angeles Community College District:

There are numerous additional colleges and universities outside the city limits in the Greater Los Angeles area, including the Claremont Colleges consortium, which includes the most selective liberal arts colleges in the U.S., and the California Institute of Technology (Caltech), one of the top STEM-focused research institutions in the world.

Los Angeles Unified School District serves almost all of the city of Los Angeles, as well as several surrounding communities, with a student population around 800,000. After Proposition 13 was approved in 1978, urban school districts had considerable trouble with funding. LAUSD has become known for its underfunded, overcrowded and poorly maintained campuses, although its 162 Magnet schools help compete with local private schools.

Several small sections of Los Angeles are in the Inglewood Unified School District, and the Las Virgenes Unified School District. The Los Angeles County Office of Education operates the Los Angeles County High School for the Arts.

The Los Angeles metro area is the second-largest broadcast designated market area in the U.S. (after New York) with 5,431,140 homes (4.956% of the U.S.), which is served by a wide variety of local AM and FM radio and television stations. Los Angeles and New York City are the only two media markets to have seven VHF allocations assigned to them.

As part of the region's aforementioned creative industry, the Big Four major broadcast television networks, ABC, CBS, FOX, and NBC, all have production facilities and offices throughout various areas of Los Angeles. All four major broadcast television networks, plus major Spanish-language networks Telemundo and Univision, also own and operate stations that both serve the Los Angeles market and serve as each network's West Coast flagship station: ABC's KABC-TV (Channel 7), CBS's KCBS-TV (Channel 2), Fox's KTTV-TV (Channel 11), NBC's KNBC-TV (Channel 4), MyNetworkTV's KCOP-TV (Channel 13), Telemundo's KVEA-TV (Channel 52), and Univision's KMEX-TV (Channel 34). The region also has four PBS stations, with KCET, re-joining the network as secondary affiliate in August 2019, after spending the previous eight years as the nation's largest independent public television station. KTBN (Channel 40) is the flagship station of the religious Trinity Broadcasting Network, based out of Santa Ana. A variety of independent television stations, such as KCAL-TV (Channel 9) and KTLA-TV (Channel 5), also operate in the area.

The major daily English-language newspaper in the area is the Los Angeles Times. La Opinión is the city's major daily Spanish-language paper. The Korea Times is the city's major daily Korean-language paper while The World Journal is the city and county's major Chinese newspaper. The Los Angeles Sentinel is the city's major African-American weekly paper, boasting the largest African-American readership in the Western United States. Investor's Business Daily is distributed from its LA corporate offices, which are headquartered in Playa del Rey.

There are also a number of smaller regional newspapers, alternative weeklies and magazines, including the Los Angeles Register, Los Angeles Community News, (which focuses on coverage of the greater Los Angeles area), Los Angeles Daily News (which focuses coverage on the San Fernando Valley), LA Weekly, L.A. Record (which focuses coverage on the music scene in the Greater Los Angeles Area), Los Angeles Magazine, the Los Angeles Business Journal, the Los Angeles Daily Journal (legal industry paper), The Hollywood Reporter, Variety (both entertainment industry papers), and Los Angeles Downtown News. In addition to the major papers, numerous local periodicals serve immigrant communities in their native languages, including Armenian, English, Korean, Persian, Russian, Chinese, Japanese, Hebrew, and Arabic. Many cities adjacent to Los Angeles also have their own daily newspapers whose coverage and availability overlaps with certain Los Angeles neighborhoods. Examples include The Daily Breeze (serving the South Bay), and The Long Beach Press-Telegram.

Los Angeles arts, culture and nightlife news is also covered by a number of local and national online guides, including Time Out Los Angeles, Thrillist, Kristin's List, DailyCandy, Diversity News Magazine, LAist, and Flavorpill.

The city and the rest of the Los Angeles metropolitan area are served by an extensive network of freeways and highways. Texas Transportation Institute's annual Urban Mobility Report ranked Los Angeles area roads the most congested in the United States in 2019 as measured by annual delay per traveler, area residents experiencing a cumulative average of 119 hours waiting in traffic that year. Los Angeles was followed by San Francisco/Oakland, Washington, D.C., and Miami. Despite the congestion in the city, the mean daily travel time for commuters in Los Angeles is shorter than other major cities, including New York City, Philadelphia and Chicago. Los Angeles's mean travel time for work commutes in 2006 was 29.2 minutes, similar to those of San Francisco and Washington, D.C.

The major highways that connect LA to the rest of the nation include Interstate 5, which runs south through San Diego to Tijuana in Mexico and north through Sacramento, Portland, and Seattle to the Canada–US border; Interstate 10, the southernmost east–west, coast-to-coast Interstate Highway in the United States, going to Jacksonville, Florida; and U.S. Route 101, which heads to the California Central Coast, San Francisco, the Redwood Empire, and the Oregon and Washington coasts.

The LA County Metropolitan Transportation Authority (LA County Metro) and other agencies operate an extensive system of bus lines, as well as subway and light rail lines across Los Angeles County, with a combined monthly ridership (measured in individual boardings) of 38.8 million as of September 2011. The majority of this (30.5 million) is taken up by the city's bus system, the second busiest in the country. The subway and light rail combined average the remaining roughly 8.2 million boardings per month. LA County Metro recorded over 397 million boardings for the 2017 calendar year, including about 285 million bus riders and about 113 million riding on rail transit. For the first quarter of 2018, there were just under 95 million system-wide boardings, down from about 98 million in 2017, and about 105 million in 2016. In 2005, 10.2% of Los Angeles commuters rode some form of public transportation. According to the 2016 American Community Survey, 9.2% of working Los Angeles (city) residents made the journey to work via public transportation.

The city's subway system is the ninth busiest in the United States and its light rail system is the country's busiest. The rail system includes the B and D subway lines, as well as the A, C, E, and L light rail lines. In 2016, the E Line was extended to the Pacific Ocean at Santa Monica. The Metro G and J lines are bus rapid transit lines with stops and frequency similar to those of light rail. As of 2022, the total number of light rail stations is 99. The city is also central to the commuter rail system Metrolink, which links Los Angeles to all neighboring counties as well as many suburbs.

Besides the rail service provided by Metrolink and the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority, Los Angeles is served by inter-city passenger trains from Amtrak. The main rail station in the city is Union Station just north of Downtown.

In addition, the city directly contracts for local and commuter bus service through the Los Angeles Department of Transportation, or LADOT.

The main international and domestic airport serving Los Angeles is Los Angeles International Airport (IATA: LAX, ICAO: KLAX), commonly referred to by its airport code, LAX. It is located on the Westside of Los Angeles near the Sofi Stadium in Inglewood.

Other major nearby commercial airports include:

One of the world's busiest general-aviation airports is also in Los Angeles: Van Nuys Airport (IATA: VNY, ICAO: KVNY).

The Port of Los Angeles is in San Pedro Bay in the San Pedro neighborhood, approximately 20 miles (32 km) south of Downtown. Also called Los Angeles Harbor and WORLDPORT LA, the port complex occupies 7,500 acres (30 km) of land and water along 43 miles (69 km) of waterfront. It adjoins the separate Port of Long Beach.

The sea ports of the Port of Los Angeles and Port of Long Beach together make up the Los Angeles/Long Beach Harbor. Together, both ports are the fifth busiest container port in the world, with a trade volume of over 14.2 million TEU's in 2008. Singly, the Port of Los Angeles is the busiest container port in the United States and the largest cruise ship center on the West Coast of the United States – The Port of Los Angeles's World Cruise Center served about 590,000 passengers in 2014.

There are also smaller, non-industrial harbors along Los Angeles's coastline. The port includes four bridges: the Vincent Thomas Bridge, Henry Ford Bridge, Long Beach International Gateway Bridge, and Commodore Schuyler F. Heim Bridge. Passenger ferry service from San Pedro to the city of Avalon (and Two Harbors) on Santa Catalina Island is provided by Catalina Express.

Los Angeles has 25 sister cities, listed chronologically by year joined:

In addition, Los Angeles has the following "friendship cities":

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 ADA Compliance in Simi Valley, CA

ADA Compliance For the Masses

ADA compliance is short for the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). But technically, ADA Compliance refers to the modification of the architectural or structural elements of buildings and facilities designed for persons with handicaps. Although ADA compliant activities may include changes to a facility\'s exterior, many businesses and organizations prefer to focus their ADA compliance efforts on the inside of the facility. In other words, ADA compliant activities usually mean alterations to the interior of the facility, rather than the exterior. But ADA compliance really means much more than simply making changes or adjustments to make a facility more accessible.

ADA compliance is actually a legal requirement for almost all U.S. residents and visitors who are not otherwise prohibited from entering or remaining within a public accommodation. In order to meet this legal requirement, most organizations and businesses now have well developed procedures on how to make changes in their facilities without running afoul of ADA regulations. In fact, a large number of companies now have ADA compliance programs or policies as part of their general public accommodation planning and policy development. These specialized policies provide general guidelines on how to ensure that the various services and amenities provided by a public accommodation are made easily accessible to all individuals who might be disabled.

A great deal of emphasis has been placed on ADA compliance in the last decade because of the increasing presence of individuals with disabilities in the workforce. According to the American Psychological Association, disability impacts nearly one in five American adults, and almost half of these adults are women. Individuals with disabilities often face unemployment and a variety of barriers to gain employment. Therefore, it is not surprising that disability-based ADA compliance is an important part of every business\'s or organization\'s public accommodation planning and policy development.

Businesses and organizations have developed ADA compliant website content in a variety of fields, such as advertising, communications, employee relations, financial services, healthcare, hospitality, legal, marketing, and technology. In each of these fields, a variety of websites are available for ADA compliant portal access. Some of the most popular websites for ADA compliance include: The White House ADA Website, which provides a plethora of information on the federal government\'s ADA website; The U.S. Department of Education\'s Office of Fair Housing and equal opportunity policies, which provides extensive information on housing law regarding accessibility for disabled individuals; The Centers for Medicare Services\' Medicare Accessibility Center, which provides accessible home page information on various Medicare issues pertaining to the law. Several state governments provide similar ADA compliant websites, as well. Most business organizations retain local ADA office staff to provide ADA assistance at meetings and seminars. You may also contact local government agencies to find out what ADA compliance requirements apply to your particular area.

In addition to creating ADA compliant websites, organizations and businesses must also take additional steps to become more accessible to individuals with disabilities. ADA Compliance Kit is a series of thirteen kits, which include comprehensive guidebooks and pamphlets that explain the legal standards governing ADA compliance. These documents provide detailed descriptions of the various types of accommodations that are required to make people with various types of disabilities able to become wheelchair accessible or use devices like walkers or scooters. Individuals who are interested in obtaining ADA training should also check their local government offices to see if they require any training or other assistance to achieve ADA compliance.

The guidelines describe the format of the Kit and give details on the accessibility of web content and other written materials. The Web Content Accessibility Guidelines outline four steps that should be followed to ensure ADA compliance. Once these four steps have been completed, individuals and businesses can apply for ADA approval.

In order to successfully complete the application process, it is necessary to obtain a letter of authorization from an individual with a disability. Individuals and businesses should not attempt to complete the application without the proper forms. A copy of the letter of authorization is then included on the ADA compliant website. To make websites more accessible for people with disabilities, many companies also make their website content accessible by using Braille fonts instead of full color. Braille text makes websites easy to read for most people. Using this option helps individuals who cannot see print to easily access websites.

ADA compliance requires organizations to take action. Without ADA compliance, individuals with disabilities will not be able to fully participate in American society. ADA compliance can be achieved by contacting the local government agencies and by ensuring that all regulations are met. Individuals who need assistance with getting ready for ADA compliance should also check the government\'s ADA website. Websites of state and local government agencies are also great sources for information on ADA compliance and tips for achieving ADA compliance.

 Asphalt Patching in Simi Valley, CA

Asphalt Patching - Keep Your Garage Looking Great and Save Money

Asphalt Patching is an efficient method used for repairing small sections of asphalt pavement by replace the damaged material with new asphalt only to restore its full structural strength without requiring repaving or resurfacing. This process also reduces the required amount of paving necessary and the associated costs, while increasing the durability of the pavement. This is beneficial to business owners, who may have limited budgets. It is also beneficial to local communities because it increases safety for everyone who walks or drives on the paved road.

A wide range of materials are used in asphalt patching, such as asphalt and concrete, which have different advantages over synthetic interlocking pavement mixes. Asphalt is typically the chosen material because it is the most commonly used for industrial applications, including industrial, commercial, and residential streets. Concrete, on the other hand, is used in residential neighborhoods and is relatively cheaper than asphalt. When deciding upon what material should be used, it is important that you contact an experienced asphalt paving contractor who can advise you about your particular needs. To learn more about asphalt patching, contact a paving contractor in your area today.

Most asphalt patches replace one or both of the damaged pavement panels. Depending on the severity of the damage, the repaired area may include a medallion or curb accent, which are designed to visually define the repaired section of pavement. A small curb accent, which is typically made of steel or aluminum, is typically added to the end of the repaired section of pavement to visually soften the contrast between the adjacent roadway and the adjacent sidewalk or curb. The amount of curb accent required will depend upon the severity of the damage and the length of time it will take for the repair to be completed.

Not all asphalt paving requires the replacement of damaged panels. In some cases, the damaged asphalt pavement simply needs to be repaired with a different style of asphalt. When a repair becomes necessary, contact an experienced asphalt paving contractor to find out what kind of materials are available and how much each cost. In many cases, the repair is usually cost-effective when compared to ripping up and replacing the panels. If the repair involves new asphalt, make sure to choose a company that uses high quality, fully patched asphalt that is manufactured by a reputable provider.

Another type of asphalt paving project involves leveling. In some cases, the problem is not a flat spot; sometimes it is a uneven surface. Regardless of the situation, most asphalt pavements require some leveling before they\'re ready for use. Because it costs so much to rip up and replace asphalt pavements, most property owners avoid tearing up and replacing their asphalt pavements if at all possible. If the area doesn\'t need to be leveled completely, repave the area. If the problem lies in the leveling of the paved surface, contact a reputable asphalt paving company to find out what products they recommend for this job.

Parking lots face unique problems that other pavement areas don\'t. In addition to tearing up and replacing asphalt pavement, parking lots may also need to be repaired or replaced with a variety of materials. The first thing you may want to consider for your asphalt pavement replacement project is the addition of a new parking lot sealer. Parking lot sealants are specially designed for asphalt pavements and provide the additional protection that asphalt parking lots need. Depending on your parking lot and budget, you may be able to simply apply the park sealer yourself using a chemical paint or roller application system.

Asphalt patching can also help in small cracks. Small cracks in asphalt driveways or patches can often be repaired easily and professionally. When dealing with small cracks, always try to work on the problem area right away. If you leave the crack open it will quickly fill with water and expand. This will cause additional damage and possibly even cost you more in the long run. For larger cracks, consult your local contractor to decide if you need to tear up the entire asphalt driveway or if a repair with a patch will suffice.

Asphalt patching should be an easy and affordable option to protect your parking lot. If you have any questions about the process, contact your local contractors. Most will be more than happy to answer your questions and give you the information you need to make an informed decision about your parking lot\'s maintenance. The cost of repair or replacement should be considered a monthly expense. With proper preventative maintenance your garage will be protected from stains and cracks for many years to come.

 Asphalt Paving in Simi Valley, CA

Asphalt paving is one of the most commonly used forms of construction today. This is due to its high adaptability and low cost. In addition, it is also considered to be a very practical option when it comes to home paving. However, it does have certain shortcomings that need to be taken note of. Read on to know about some of these and consider whether you should opt for asphalt or not.

One of the disadvantages of using an asphalt driveway is that it can be quite slippery. You need to make sure, therefore, that you drive your car carefully on it. And even if you do so, there is still a chance of your vehicle getting stuck on the asphalt. So, you should keep a good grip on the steering wheel and use all the available help you can. This is especially important if you are making a long distance drive.

There is also a possibility that asphalt might damage the surface underneath if it is not properly sealed. This is because asphalt is a petroleum product and petroleum products can cause damage to the environment. Therefore, you should make sure that the paved area is adequately sealed to make sure that it does not erode.

It is also important to remember that asphalt can crack when it gets too wet. If this happens, you will need to replace the area with new asphalt so that it does not get cracked again in future. Otherwise, you may end up spending more on repairing cracks that you have caused. In fact, asphalt cracks can be a real headache especially during heavy rains when the paver becomes very susceptible to water penetration.

Apart from this, asphalt is also susceptible to cracking when it is exposed to heat. This is especially true during summer months when the temperature is high. During this period, it is possible for the asphalt to get very soft and mushy. When this happens, it is much harder to seal the surface properly and repair any cracks that have developed.

Another problem that can occur with an asphalt paver is when it is being used improperly. For instance, when the asphalt paver is being used to pave driveways, it can easily grind over the edges of the driveway. The grout lines might also get damaged during this process. In fact, there are some homeowners who prefer using concrete or paved paths in front of their homes and driveways. However, they often forget that they should also seal these paths. Sealing the pathways will help to keep them protected from debris, grit, water and sand.

Homeowners should therefore find a qualified company to clean up their asphalt paver once in a while. These professionals will use a pressure washer to remove all the dirt and debris that have built up on the paver. They will then use a power washer to completely clean the water surface. After this is done, you can simply have the surfaces sealed and maintained by your local company.

By hiring a company to perform regular maintenance on your asphalt paver, you will be able to prevent some very common problems. For instance, if you find that the pavers have cracks, you can ask your local maintenance company to repair these cracks before they become larger. You can also ask them to apply new asphalt once a year. If you forget to do this, the asphalt will eventually wear out and begin to crack again. By properly maintaining your asphalt paver, you will be able to save yourself money in the long run because you will not have to call maintenance on a regular basis.

 Asphalt Sealcoating in Simi Valley, CA

Sealcoating Your Asphalt Parking Lot

Whether you have an asphalt driveway or parking lot, it is important to have it properly maintained to avoid damage. This can include sealcoating, which is a process designed to enhance the appearance of your pavement. The process of sealing the surface prevents water damage, reduces wear and tear, and extends the life of your driveway.

Choosing the right seal coat is an important step to ensure that your asphalt remains looking good for a long time. You can find several types of seal coats on the market, which differ in both their chemical composition and their application techniques.

Seal coating a parking lot is an inexpensive and easy way to maintain your pavement. This process is also a great way to increase curb appeal. The Institute of Real Estate Management says that the appearance of a parking lot is rated at eight on a scale of one to ten.

A seal coat is a mixture of asphalt and water. It is applied to the surface to make it smooth and to protect it from the elements. The resulting product can be a dark black color that makes the asphalt surface look like new.

It is important to consider the cost of sealcoating your asphalt pavement before you begin. The amount you pay will depend on the size of the paved area and the services provided. The price of asphalt is always affected by the oil prices.

Seal coating can prevent water damage, oxidation, and cracking. It can help you avoid having to replace your driveway.

 Asphalt Sealing in Simi Valley, CA

How to Evaluate the Effectiveness of Asphalt Crack Sealing

The process of asphalt crack sealing is a great way to improve the appearance of your driveway or parking lot. There are several factors to consider before choosing the right type of sealant: cost, environmental impact, and quality. Listed below are some of the main factors to consider. Once you\'ve decided which method to use, you can move forward to the next step: evaluating the quality of sealants and the effectiveness of your crack sealing project.

Cost-effectiveness

To determine the effectiveness of different methods of crack sealing, researchers have analyzed the performance of unsealed and sealed pavement. Most studies have focused on unsealed pavement and found that sealing improves pavement performance. However, not many studies have compared the cost-benefit of different techniques. This research aims to address this gap. In this article, we will discuss the differences and similarities between these two methods.

Although it is an important preventive maintenance strategy, pavement experts differ on which method is more cost-effective. Using literature review, a survey, and field performance data, researchers have developed a cost-effectiveness guideline for pavement crack sealing. The results from this study provide a basis for comparing the various methods. Crack sealing is also more expensive than crack filling. Despite its initial high cost, crack sealing may offer longer service. More research is needed to determine whether higher performance materials are truly beneficial.

Environmental impact

While asphalt crack sealing may not have a negative environmental impact, it can have a detrimental impact on pavements. When applied improperly, crack sealing can cause damage to asphalt pavements due to moisture entrapment. Unlike other types of surface treatments, crack sealing prevents water from escaping upwards. In fact, crack sealing can reduce the lifespan of pavements by 1.1 to 2 years. This can lead to an increase in maintenance and rehabilitation costs.

This study shows that a crack seal technique can reduce emissions of nitrogen oxide and sulphur dioxide by 50 percent. However, the crack seal method has the lowest overall emission reduction. The researchers suggest that all methods of preventive maintenance reduce carbon dioxide emissions. They recommend that new pavement studies incorporate sustainable pavement management components and consider the environmental impact of asphalt crack sealing. The study concludes that future pavements must incorporate a comprehensive life-cycle assessment to evaluate their overall environmental impact.

Quality of sealant

When determining the quality of asphalt crack sealant, consider the following factors: Size, shape, moisture content, and repair method. Crack sealant\'s success depends on several factors. Generally, a crack less than 20% in crack density requires a more flexible product. In contrast, a larger crack density requires a stiffer sealant. In addition, sealant\'s tackiness decreases after it has been cured.

When choosing an asphalt crack filler, make sure to choose one with the right adhesive properties. Asphalt filler is not rubberized, and it might dislodge if the pavement moves. Sealant, on the other hand, expands and contracts with the pavement. If the crack filler doesn\'t expand and contract with the pavement, it is not the right choice. For this reason, choosing a high-quality asphalt crack filler is imperative.

 Crack Filling in Simi Valley, CA

Tips For Asphalt Crack Filling

In the business of asphalt crack filling, you\'ll find a number of tools and techniques that will ensure the job is done correctly. To start, you\'ll need a method for cleaning the affected area. Next, you\'ll need a melter to heat up the filler and a crack applicator to fill the fracture. These tools and techniques will last longer and keep your road looking great. You can also use a Sandliner to make crack repair easier.

Epoxy and acrylic crack fillers offer a longer lifespan

There are some important differences between epoxy and acrylic crack fillers. Epoxy is stronger and offers longer lasting results. Acrylic has a lower cost but is not as durable as epoxy. Both fillers have the potential for cracking and deterioration. Both types of fillers offer more than one purpose. Each has their benefits, but the pros and cons of each material should be considered before choosing one over the other.

They resist moisture

Moisture damage occurs to an asphalt mixture when moisture penetrates through the pavement. This results in a decrease in strength and durability. A road network in Egypt, for example, has seen severe deterioration from water intrusion. The bond between the asphalt film and aggregates breaks. The degree of saturation is determined by the composition and the media of attack. The anti-stripping additive, hydrated lime, is used to prevent further deterioration of the pavement. The degree of saturation is also affected by the amount of air voids. The ratio of hydration to tensile strength determines the level of resistance to moisture damage.

They prevent potholes

If you want to avoid potholes, then you should consider asphalt crack filling. Potholes begin as small divots and gradually grow into large holes. This preventative maintenance can be done with supplies available from your local hardware store. Small cracks on the road can be easily repaired by patching them with an asphalt crack filler. This will save you money in the long run, as you will not have to spend money on expensive repairs to your car.

They prevent weeds

A cement crack filler can also keep weeds from growing in your asphalt driveway. You can buy horticultural vinegar, which is 20 percent acetic acid, and mix it with orange oil and phosphate-free dish soap. This chemical burns plant top growth and prevents them from photosynthesizing. However, be careful! This chemical can cause a mild burn and can harm the skin and eyes, so use it carefully.

They provide curb appeal

The appearance of a parking lot has a lot to do with a building\'s curb appeal. Curb appeal is a critical factor in sales and other observable property attributes. When a parking lot has cracks or is in poor condition, it will impact visitors and can lower the liability of the property owner. Properly maintained parking lots also enhance curb appeal, and the right crack fillings can help improve the appearance of a parking lot.

 Crack Sealing in Simi Valley, CA

How to Evaluate the Effectiveness of Asphalt Crack Sealing

The process of asphalt crack sealing is a great way to improve the appearance of your driveway or parking lot. There are several factors to consider before choosing the right type of sealant: cost, environmental impact, and quality. Listed below are some of the main factors to consider. Once you\'ve decided which method to use, you can move forward to the next step: evaluating the quality of sealants and the effectiveness of your crack sealing project.

Cost-effectiveness

To determine the effectiveness of different methods of crack sealing, researchers have analyzed the performance of unsealed and sealed pavement. Most studies have focused on unsealed pavement and found that sealing improves pavement performance. However, not many studies have compared the cost-benefit of different techniques. This research aims to address this gap. In this article, we will discuss the differences and similarities between these two methods.

Although it is an important preventive maintenance strategy, pavement experts differ on which method is more cost-effective. Using literature review, a survey, and field performance data, researchers have developed a cost-effectiveness guideline for pavement crack sealing. The results from this study provide a basis for comparing the various methods. Crack sealing is also more expensive than crack filling. Despite its initial high cost, crack sealing may offer longer service. More research is needed to determine whether higher performance materials are truly beneficial.

Environmental impact

While asphalt crack sealing may not have a negative environmental impact, it can have a detrimental impact on pavements. When applied improperly, crack sealing can cause damage to asphalt pavements due to moisture entrapment. Unlike other types of surface treatments, crack sealing prevents water from escaping upwards. In fact, crack sealing can reduce the lifespan of pavements by 1.1 to 2 years. This can lead to an increase in maintenance and rehabilitation costs.

This study shows that a crack seal technique can reduce emissions of nitrogen oxide and sulphur dioxide by 50 percent. However, the crack seal method has the lowest overall emission reduction. The researchers suggest that all methods of preventive maintenance reduce carbon dioxide emissions. They recommend that new pavement studies incorporate sustainable pavement management components and consider the environmental impact of asphalt crack sealing. The study concludes that future pavements must incorporate a comprehensive life-cycle assessment to evaluate their overall environmental impact.

Quality of sealant

When determining the quality of asphalt crack sealant, consider the following factors: Size, shape, moisture content, and repair method. Crack sealant\'s success depends on several factors. Generally, a crack less than 20% in crack density requires a more flexible product. In contrast, a larger crack density requires a stiffer sealant. In addition, sealant\'s tackiness decreases after it has been cured.

When choosing an asphalt crack filler, make sure to choose one with the right adhesive properties. Asphalt filler is not rubberized, and it might dislodge if the pavement moves. Sealant, on the other hand, expands and contracts with the pavement. If the crack filler doesn\'t expand and contract with the pavement, it is not the right choice. For this reason, choosing a high-quality asphalt crack filler is imperative.

 Driveway Paving in Simi Valley, CA

What You Need to Know About Driveway Paving

Whether you\'re replacing your old driveway or simply trying to improve your curb appeal, there are a few things you need to know about driveway paving. From the cost to the materials used, here are some helpful tips to guide your next project.

The best way to determine the true cost of your driveway paving project is to get a free estimate from a driveway paving specialist near you. There are many experts ready to help. The cost of a new driveway will vary greatly depending on the size, shape, and material of the driveway.

There are four main types of driveways. They are asphalt, concrete, gravel, and pavers. All four come in different styles and performance qualities. The most popular material is a paving stone.

However, you can also install a small gravel driveway. If you are a green space fan, you may want to consider installing a grass paver instead.

The cost of driveway paving will depend on the size of your driveway, the material you choose, and the labor required. This includes the actual installation of the driveway as well as the disposal of the old material.

The cheapest material for a driveway is a gravel one. The average price ranges from a few hundred to a few thousand dollars. Alternatively, you can pay for the labor to lay down a paver base.

A properly constructed driveway can last decades. The most durable type is a gravel or grass filled plastic paver. These can be easily replaced if they start to wear out.

 Parking Lot Paving in Simi Valley, CA

How to Properly Prepare Your Parking Lot for Paving

Whether you\'re building a new parking lot or upgrading the one you already have, you should be aware of the process involved. From the initial site work to the final coating, it\'s important to take the right steps.

First, you\'ll want to choose a contractor with the expertise and experience to get the job done right. Your contractor should also be willing to provide a full estimate of materials and labor, and the cost will vary depending on the size and complexity of your project.

Next, you\'ll want to decide on the type of asphalt you\'ll use. Traditionally, asphalt paving has been done using base asphalt mixtures over an aggregate layer. This is the most common method. The advantages of this approach include the ability to keep the parking lot at a constant elevation, which eliminates the need for underdrains.

You\'ll also need to decide on how you\'ll handle water management. The amount of water your pavement can handle is a key factor in its longevity. If you\'re unable to control how much moisture a surface can absorb, it can cause damage.

In addition, you\'ll need to make sure your sub-base is adequately prepared for a new asphalt surface. Most subgrade soils contain silt and clay. This can cause moisture to penetrate the sub-base and undermine the structural strength of the pavement.

You\'ll also want to consider the appropriate thickness of your asphalt paving. The thickness of your base course and surface course will depend on how much traffic your parking lot gets.

 Paving Company in Simi Valley, CA

What to Look for in an Asphalt Paving Contractor

Countryside Paving Company has been in the business of paving for over two decades. The business has a strong commitment to customer satisfaction and a long standing commitment to excellence. The Company offers many different types of paving services including, driveway paving, walkway paving, sidewalk paving, slab paving, decorative paving, and much more. This company is able to offer these different services because they have many qualified and experienced employees. Most of the employees are unionized, which is one of the main reasons that this company is able to offer some of these paving services at an affordable price. They are also able to offer these services because most of their labor is unionized, this is why you will notice that their employees talk to you as one of the family and not just as another worker.

If you need some commercial paving services, then you can expect to have the work done quickly and efficiently. One of the major reasons that this company can provide you with great commercial paving services is because they are fully stocked with the tools and materials needed to complete your project. By having a full stock of all of the materials that you need to get the job done, you will be able to save a lot of money and time. Because the majority of the paving job requires a concrete base, this is another reason why the commercial paving company is able to keep prices low because they are able to buy these materials in large quantities. They are also able to pass these savings on to you by charging you a low price for the job.

Another reason why you should use a reputable paving company is because they specialize in all types of jobs. For example, if you are paving a parking lot, then you might want to use a paving contractor that specializes in asphalt surfaces. Parking lots are usually the most popular type of pavement job that you will find that a paving company takes on. There are a number of different things that you will need to consider when choosing a paving company to take on this job for you, but the most important consideration will be the quality of the job that you will get.

If you want to choose the best paving contractor possible for your paving needs, then you will need to make sure that you spend some time checking out different companies that offer this service. Some of the things that you will want to look for include the experience of the paving contractor. A good way to determine whether or not this is the case is to ask for references from previous clients. If you find a paving contractor that has a lot of good references, then you will want to consider hiring that contractor for your commercial paving needs. It is always best to choose a good contractor who has a lot of positive references rather than one that has a lot of poor references.

Another thing to consider is the level of skill and knowledge that a paving company has when it comes to working on an asphalt surface. You should check out the paving contractor\'s portfolio to see if they know what they are doing when it comes to working on asphalt surfaces. Some of the best companies in the business have been doing paving work for a long time and they have a lot of experience. It is important to know that the job that you are going to be getting done will be done right the first time around. If you have any doubts about the ability of a paving company to handle a certain type of asphalt surface, then you will want to choose another company to do your asphalt surface paving.

The last thing that you will want to consider before choosing a paving company is their longevity. It is important to choose a paving company that can stay in business for at least three generations. If you are trying to save a few bucks, you will want to look for a paving company that does not have a lot of experience. The good news is that there are many paving companies that are willing to stay in business for more than three generations. If you are trying to cut costs, however, you will want to choose a paving company that is experienced and one that offers good customer service. If a paving company cannot make an accurate estimate or provide specific information about the cost of your project within three days, then you may want to hire a different company.

If you are trying to find a paving company that can get the job done within three generations, you will need to ask them about their track record. The last thing that you want to do is hire a commercial paving contractor that is not very experienced. A good commercial paving contractor will help you to create the best looking commercial driveway that you can possibly imagine. They will also make sure that the driveway is not only well marked but that it is properly laid and organized as well. The last thing that you want to do is hire a paving company that makes a mistake during the installation of the asphalt paving contractor.

Asphalt paving is an easy task to complete but it does require a lot of expertise. Before you hire any company, it will be important to ask them about the amount of experience that they have with asphalt paving. Any paving company should be able to provide you with a list of references that they have supplied to previous customers. You can also request to see a proof of insurance or a business license if you feel that the company does not have the proper licensing to carry out the kind of work that they are doing.

 Asphalt Maintenance in Simi Valley, CA

What You Need to Know About Asphalt Maintenance

If you\'re interested in learning more about Asphalt Maintenance, you\'ve come to the right place. This article covers Preventative maintenance, Crack sealing, Sealcoating, and Overlaying. Hopefully, this article will answer any of your questions. And in case you have any more questions, feel free to contact us directly. Alternatively, you can read about these maintenance practices by reading our articles on paving. Here are a few tips:

Preventative maintenance

A pre-existing pavement is a great place to start with preventative maintenance. Performing regular maintenance on asphalt can help it last longer and prevent the need for expensive repairs later on. You can prepare a checklist of tasks for a regular asphalt maintenance schedule that you can follow to ensure the pavement looks good for as long as possible. There are many ways to maintain your pavement, so make sure you use it to its full potential.

One way to extend the life of asphalt pavement is to perform regular preventative maintenance. This will allow you to extend the life of your pavement structure, which can save you thousands of dollars over the course of ten years. You can learn more about the preventative maintenance process by contacting your city engineer or director of public works. You can also get the necessary supplies and tools for the work yourself. Preventative maintenance will help you save money in the long run, so it\'s well worth it to consider it before investing in a new pavement.

Crack sealing

In many cases, cracks are not completely sealed, allowing rain and moisture to seep through, eroding the base materials beneath the asphalt and causing potholes. Crack sealing slows the process of deterioration of the pavement by stopping moisture and preventing loss of aggregate. It can save a substantial amount of money over replacing the entire pavement. Here are some reasons to use crack sealing. Hopefully, these tips will prove to be helpful.

First, crack sealing is a long-term treatment. The best time to apply the material is when temperatures are moderate and the cracks are still small. Ideally, it should be applied when cracks are newly developed to maximize its effectiveness. In addition, crack sealing requires a minimum of two weeks to cure. Afterwards, it is recommended to use a de-tacking agent, such as liquid or fine sand, to prevent further damage to the surface.

Sealcoating

If you are in need of asphalt maintenance or repair, you might be considering the benefits of sealcoating. Sealcoat is composed of heated asphalt bitumen, which turns viscous when it dries. Asphalt bitumen is a by-product of crude oil that is used in road construction. However, synthetic tar substances do not require heating before they can be applied to asphalt. In order to apply sealcoating, your asphalt surface must be completely dry and free of all debris.

There are many benefits to sealcoating your asphalt surface. It will prevent cracks and maintain its luster. But, choosing the right sealcoat is essential to keep it looking great and functioning properly for years to come. While some types of sealcoat are better for driveways, asphalt emulsions are the best. They provide protection against traffic while preventing bitumen from oxidizing and becoming brittle. Another benefit of applying sealcoat is that they dry within three to four hours.

Overlaying

Overlaying asphalt is a way of extending the life of existing pavements without completely tearing them out. This process can add several years of useful service without detracting from aesthetics or functionality. The cost of overlays may offset the savings made by not replacing the original pavement. However, proper application can prolong the life of a pavement up to fifteen years. Here are some of the advantages of asphalt overlays. These benefits make this maintenance strategy a great option for a wide variety of applications.

Overlays are only applicable over existing asphalt. This means that you\'ll have to take a few measures before laying the asphalt overlay. Root damage, huge potholes, and other types of damage that can\'t be fixed by overlaying will require tearing the structure apart. Poor drainage also makes it difficult to apply an asphalt overlay. In such cases, the surface must be graded to allow water to drain away easily. Asphalt milling is another option, which is a method of removing the damaged upper layer of asphalt to allow for an overlay to be applied.

 Commercial Paving in Simi Valley, CA

Commercial Paving Services For Improvement Of Business Facilities

Commercial paving involves the repairing and maintenance of public and private properties. In many countries, the government allocates a part of its budget for the paving of roads, buildings and other structures. The maintenance and repair of pavements and walkways is a regular task that is entrusted to commercial paving companies. There are a number of types of pavements, such as drainage, traffic control, beautification, and parking lots. For any establishment, it is important to have a well-maintained and beautiful pavements to make them look presentable and appealing.

Commercial paving can also be damaged by some external factors, such as severe weather, vandalism, careless parking, and the use of unsanitary practices. When parking lot owners or operators do not maintain their parking lots properly, they may find themselves liable for damages that arise due to such negligence. If asphalt pavement is prone to deterioration due to heavy rains or the use of an inferior sealant, they may end up having to repair the damaged areas. Repairing such damages may prove to be a costly venture, which is why it is essential to contact a reliable company that can provide durable, attractive, and cost-effective repairs.

A good commercial paving company should be able to provide durable and attractive commercial concrete structures that are able to withstand any type of weather. These structures should also be repaired or replaced easily and efficiently, in order to prevent inconveniences to both customers and business owners. A reputable company should always be able to perform regular maintenance activities such as drainage cleaning, color change, and stone removal. These tasks are important to maintain the cleanliness and condition of commercial concrete, which in turn helps in maintaining the value of the property.

One of the main tasks of any paving company is to maintain the overall appearance of its commercial parking lot or building. This can be achieved by regularly cleaning out the parking lot. This is one of the most effective ways of promoting the brand image of the company. Furthermore, regular maintenance of the commercial paving services will allow business owners to identify possible problems such as cracks and other types of damage. Such issues can be resolved quickly, without the need to completely replace the commercial asphalt or concrete.

Cracks and other damage to pavement should never be overlooked as these can affect the overall durability of a pavement. A qualified paving job crew should be able to repair all types of cracks that could be found in asphalt pavements. In case cracks are located in an area with high traffic, it is advisable to get them repaired immediately. For this reason, it is necessary to choose a paving job crew that has established contacts with experienced contractors.

Apart from cracked and damaged asphalt pavements, another area that can benefit from the service of a paving contractor is the parking lots. Parking lots that are not properly maintained can lead to a lot of problems for business owners. When the parking lot is not properly paved, it can expose the vehicle tires to uneven conditions. In addition, if the parking lot is not properly maintained, it can also reduce the life span of the vehicle tires. Therefore, it is advisable to contact professional pavement repair services to have a parking lot repaired and maintained.

Another popular commercial service that many business owners hire is the installation of blacktop. Blacktop is a layer of asphalt on the paved surfaces of the building. It makes the driveways look more attractive and extends the life of the building\'s driveways. However, blacktop requires regular cleaning and maintenance. Professional blacktop installation should be done by trained professionals so that the blacktop will not slip and will not damage the surrounding areas.

It is important to hire professionals for blacktop installations because some DIY ideas can be dangerous and damaging. The material that is used for blacktop is asphalt and it is very thick. Hence, improper handling of this material can lead to cracks and potholes. In addition to this, the process of installing bitumen can be messy and long. If the surface of the parking areas are not cleaned and maintained regularly, they can cause damage to the asphalt.

 Concrete Contractor in Simi Valley, CA

There are many things to consider when hiring concrete contractors, such as what their credentials are. A concrete contractor can be a beneficial asset to any construction project, but there are certain steps that should be taken to ensure you will hire someone who will do a good job for you. Most of the time, you can obtain information on a concrete contractor by asking questions at various businesses, such as home improvement stores, apartment complexes and flooring stores. You may also find concrete contractors by placing an ad in the newspaper or on the Internet.

The first thing you need to do when trying to find concrete contractors is to create a business plan for your project. A business plan is essentially a list of your goals and the methods you will use to reach them. A concrete contractor should be able to help you with your business plan by providing you with statistics showing how long their company has been around and details about their expertise.

It is important to talk to several different contractors before making a final decision on who you want to employ to do a concrete repair job on your building. One way to find concrete contractors is to post ads in neighborhoods. Ask if anyone has a business that they would recommend. Another way is to attend local contractors meetings to network with other commercial concrete contractors.

After determining which concrete contractors need to be employed, it is important to determine the level of experience they have. For instance, there are different levels of experience for doing concrete works, such as installing pavers, sanding, pouring concrete and more. You should consider which level of experience a contractor has before making a decision. There is always the option of hiring a contractor that has been doing concrete work for many years, but this might cost you more. However, experienced concrete contractors need to be properly tested to ensure that they can do a good repair job on your building.

Most commercial cement contractors also have a website where their customers and clients can go to learn more about them. They may have testimonials and references to look at as well. It is also a good idea to ask your potential contractor\'s questions before hiring them. If the answers provided are satisfactory, they will likely be able to provide you with a list of past jobs and even let you see pictures of what they have done in the past. You can also request free estimates from concrete contractors, which can greatly increase productivity as they can show you their level of ability and tell you how much they plan on charging you.

Commercial concrete contractors can significantly increase productivity by contracting with qualified and experienced workers. The best results can be achieved when workers are skilled and knowledgeable at what they do. This is why you need to thoroughly research each company you are considering before hiring them to complete your cement work. With a little bit of research and thorough interviews, you can get a much better idea about which concrete contractors are the best at what they do.

 Fire Lane Compliance in Simi Valley, CA

Fire Lane Compliance Requirements

If you are a manager of a property, you have to understand the requirements for fire lane compliance. This will help you in your daily business operations and in your efforts to maintain safety. A well-marked fire lane will ensure that emergency vehicles can access your building safely and efficiently. Fire lanes are marked with red paint on the road edge and with words, such as \"FIRE LANE,\" stenciled in white.

A fire lane is a passageway to or from an access road or a fire hydrant. It should be a minimum of 20 feet wide and have a 30 feet turning radius. The grade should not exceed 10 percent. Depending on the city and your specific location, you may also be required to install fire lines on the road surface or on the curb.

For businesses, fire lane compliance is essential for the safety of employees and patrons. Moreover, it is not only a requirement, but a legal obligation. You can be ticketed for driving in a fire lane without permission. Similarly, if you park in a fire lane illegally, you may have your car towed. To avoid such a situation, check with local authorities to make sure you are in compliance with all laws.

Another mandatory component of a properly marked fire lane is a \"No Parking - Fire Lane\" sign. These signs must be installed on public and private roads in accordance with an approved plan. They should be at least six inches in height and should face the direction of vehicular travel.

Additionally, the lettering for this signage must be at least 12 inches in diameter and have a maximum of 18 inches in height. It must be mounted on posts that are at least two inches in diameter and made of galvanized steel. Depending on the size of the sign, a three inch brush stroke on the adjacent surface must read, \"No Parking - Fire Lane.\"

Other requirements for fire lane compliance include the number of letters that are displayed. Each letter in the \"No Parking - Fire Lane\" must be a block letter. The letters should be spaced at no more than 50 feet apart.

Depending on your particular jurisdiction, there are many other rules and regulations for fire lanes. You should always be aware of them and follow them accordingly. Not only does this ensure the safety of you and your patrons, it can save you money. Having professional fire lane striping in your parking lot will ensure that your property is in compliance with city codes.

When planning for a new parking area, you should always do a pre-inspection with your local fire marshal. He or she will provide you with a list of requirements, including details of which are necessary for fire lane compliance. However, if you are unsure whether your lot meets the standards, you can call the City Clerk\'s Office to find out.

Ideally, the smallest and most important of the numerous fire lane related items is a well-marked fire lane. It will allow for easy access by emergency vehicles, thereby ensuring the safety of your patrons.

 Foundation Work in Simi Valley, CA

What You Need to Know About Foundation Work

Foundation work is a specialized type of job that requires a lot of skills and experience. The work may include legal and research responsibilities, public relations, communications and other administrative duties. Depending on the scope of the job, you may also need to prepare reports or write articles of incorporation.

A concrete slab foundation is a reliable and inexpensive foundation. It is also easily installed. This kind of foundation is a great option for modern homeowners, because it does not require below-ground storage. If you\'re thinking about building a new home, you should consider this option.

Investing in foundations is important to the integrity of your home. If your foundation isn\'t performing its job, you could end up with costly repairs down the road. There are many different ways to improve your foundation, and you can even hire a structural engineer to make recommendations.

In order to choose the best foundation for your needs, you will want to research options and compare prices. The more you know, the better off you will be. Besides choosing the right foundation, you need to find a contractor who can complete the job correctly.

You can start by asking your neighbors if they have foundation work done on their home. Many of them won\'t mind sharing their experience. Also, you can ask local building professionals to provide you with recommendations.

Another way to tell if you need to do foundation work is by noticing signs that the foundation is not functioning as it should. For example, you might see cracks or a noticeable shift in the floor. If you notice these signs, you should call a professional contractor to get a quote. Typically, it will cost about $4,500 for the average home.

If your foundation isn\'t working well, you might want to look into a foundation lift. This involves the placement of a hydraulic jack under the house. Once the jack is in place, it will raise the structure a millimeter or two at a time. Your foundation will then be raised to a level where construction can take place.

You might also need to reinforce the columns in your home. This can help you protect your property from storms and flooding. You can install vapor barriers to help keep moisture out of your house. Adding insulation can add about $1,400 to $2,300 to the total cost of your project.

There are many different types of foundation work, and some jobs require several years of experience and a bachelor\'s degree. However, you should be clear about your goals and priorities before deciding which type of foundation is the best choice for you.

Choosing the best type of foundation for your needs is a very technical decision. Take your time to investigate your options and ask intelligent questions. Make sure you ask about warranties and certifications so you can be confident in your decision.

Lastly, the most important thing to remember is to have a clear plan. If you\'re just starting a foundation, you need to be sure you\'re doing the right things to manage your funds.

 Grading and Excavating in Simi Valley, CA

What Is Grading And Excavating?

Grading and excavation is a process of shaping and reshaping soil. It is done to level the ground for foundations and landscaping. When grading the land, a team of workers scrapes away bumps and lumps to create a smooth, even surface. This process is done by using a Bobcat or other heavy equipment.

The main goal of grading is to create a stable slate for a home\'s foundation. If the land is sloped, grading can help to prevent flooding and erosion. A grading contractor can offer advice on how to prepare the site for a building.

Before beginning a grading project, a grading and excavation contractor needs to obtain a permit from the local jurisdiction. He also has to ensure that his workers are safe and comply with all construction regulations. In addition, he must make sure the project will fit in with the rest of the neighborhood.

Grading and excavation contractors provide services for commercial and industrial projects. Their work is based on specifications provided by engineers. They analyze the slope and type of soil on a property, and determine the best machinery to excavate. For example, an excavator may dig for irrigation lines or utility lines.

A grading and excavation contractor is responsible for ensuring the safety of their workers, as well as the safety of the project. They have to know the hazards of the site and have a plan to prevent deterioration of the property. They must also have the right permits and licenses.

Grading and excavation are important parts of any construction project. These processes prepare the site for foundations, utilities, and other structures. Depending on the size of the property, the amount of labor and the complexity of the project, a grading and excavation company may need to have a large fleet of heavy equipment to finish the job.

In most cases, grading is done at the end of a construction project. It is usually done to flatten the ground or to correct drainage problems. Sometimes, grading is used in paving projects. Grading can also be done for aesthetic reasons.

If your home has a pool, a grading and excavation company can dig a hole that holds the foundation for your swimming pool. An experienced and professional grading and excavation contractor can get the project completed safely.

Whether you have a residential or commercial property, grading and excavation can be the right way to make your land safe. By removing and compacting the top layer of dirt, grading helps to eliminate the possibility of flooding or erosion. Land grading can be done by a grading and excavation contractor, or by a reputable land clearing company.

Land grading is a complicated process that requires careful planning. Larger properties require more labor and bigger machinery to complete the job. Additionally, moving large structures such as fences can increase the complexity of the grading process. However, a grading and excavation contractor can help you determine the type of project, the type of land and the types of debris that need to be removed.

 Paving Contractor in Simi Valley, CA

Things To Remember Before Hiring An Asphalt Paving Contractor

A paving contractor is basically a business which constructs paved surfaces for residential, commercial, and civic projects. They also assist on large projects, like airport runways, municipal streets, bridges, and many more. Paving contractors usually work on public roads or sidewalks, repairing potholes, cracks, deep holes, and other unsightly signs of damage on already paved surfaces. There are also instances where they construct retaining walls or put down berms for parking lots, etc. Paving contractors have the knowledge and equipment needed to lay down an asphalt pavement, as well as the manpower to complete the job. In this article, you will get some basic information about what a paving contractor does.

The primary duty of a paving contractor is to prepare the area for the paving of the paved surface, making sure it is solid and flat. When a driveway or parking lot is constructed, the contractor needs to make sure that the driveway and the parking lot do not have any uneven surfaces, especially when there is heavy traffic on them. To do this, the contractor uses an overhead skid steer, which is used to dump material onto the roadway, leveling the surface and compacting it. Once this is done, it is time to move on to the task of laying down the quality asphalt.

Most paving contractors may use a roller to move the materials along the paved area. A front-end loader, semi-trailer trucks, and tractor-trailer trucks are some of the main equipment that are used by paving contractors. If you want to have the paving job done quickly, you can opt to have the machines operated by a professional. This way, you can ensure that the job is done right the first time and you avoid any mistakes or mishaps. An operator who knows how to operate the different machines can also ensure that the job gets done fast and efficiently.

Commercial paving companies usually employ a number of workers. Some of these workers specialize in the pavement, while others focus on other aspects of the job, such as parking structures, walkways, driveway designs and others. If you want your driveway to look beautiful, but you do not have the money to hire a professional paving company, then you may opt to do the driveway on your own. However, before embarking on this venture, you need to make sure that you know what to do and what needs to be done in order to get the job done right.

In making an informed decision, you must first assess the size of your driveway. If you have a relatively small driveway, then it is better if you hire the services of a residential asphalt paving contractor rather than a commercial one. Even if you have a large driveway that needs to be paved, it may still be cheaper if you get a residential contractor to do the job instead of hiring a professional asphalt paving contractor.

Next, you must choose the type of paving contractor to get. For instance, if you have a small parking lot, then you should get a paving company to do the work. Remember that parking lots are generally quite small. A regular driveway, on the other hand, may require the services of a driving range. Getting the proper paving company to handle your driveway will ensure that the job gets done properly and efficiently.

When choosing a commercial paving contractor, you should always consider the reputation of these contractors. You should ask many paving companies to give you references so that you can compare their services. Asphalt parking lots and driveways are typically very different from residential driveways and they require different kinds of services. Thus, if you want to get your driveway done correctly, it is important that you get a paving company with a good reputation in this area.

Apart from choosing a reputable contractor, you should also ensure that you have a clear understanding of how an asphalt paving machine works before you actually hire one. A poorly managed asphalt paving machine can create many problems, some of which may go beyond the initial estimate. You need to remember that the contractor may be charging more than what the machine can actually deliver because he doesn\'t know the intricacies of using the equipment. If you hire a contractor with a good track record, it is highly likely that he will be able to handle any unforeseen circumstances that may arise during the course of the project.

 Public Works in Simi Valley, CA

What Is Public Works?

Public Works is an umbrella term for the many policies and services that help to maintain a community. These policies and services include everything from street maintenance, traffic operations, parks and recreation, water treatment, and sewage systems. They are all designed to enhance the quality of life in a community and to meet the needs of the general public.

The United States has over 19,400 municipalities and the concept of public works is common throughout the country. However, some cities may not have a department with the name. In those instances, the public works division of the city may be a separate, non-departmental department.

Regardless of the specifics, the goal of Public Works is to provide a safe, healthy, and attractive environment for residents and visitors. This includes the design, construction, and maintenance of City-owned infrastructure and buildings, as well as the development and maintenance of city parks, greenspaces, and other public areas.

To deliver these services, the public works department employs a workforce of more than 250 full-time staff members. They work from state-of-the-art equipment and use their knowledge to provide high-quality public services to the city\'s residents and visitors.

A large part of Public Works\' responsibilities is the maintenance and repair of City-owned facilities, including paving, storm drainage, and sidewalks. Additionally, the Department\'s Parks & Grounds department is responsible for maintaining City-owned parks and outdoor spaces.

Another important role of the Department of Public Works is the management of the City\'s right-of-way. These rights-of-way include roads, bridges, and railroads, as well as utility lines and other infrastructure. It is also the Department\'s responsibility to protect the health and safety of residents and visitors by monitoring and enforcing parts of the City\'s Code of Ordinances.

Public works can be defined as any project undertaken by a government or private organization. These projects may be used for employment purposes, for recreational uses, or for the public benefit. As such, they may be financed by taxes and regulated by governmental units. Some public works projects, such as the creation of an electric grid, are paid for by the public and are therefore considered to be a public works project.

While some people think that public works are the sole responsibility of government, it is important to note that the private sector can also deliver these services. For instance, the Oak Lawn Village Board has approved a three-year contract with the Public Works employees that provides average raises of 3% per year.

There is an ongoing debate about whether or not private-sector contractors should or should not be involved in public works projects. While some argue that a fully outsourced model is the best way to go, others believe that the government should be more involved in providing the services. Many public works projects are inefficient and waste taxpayers\' money.

The Department of Public Works is the third largest division in the City Government. It maintains 47 city-owned facilities. It also provides a wide variety of programs and services to the City of Memphis.

 Residential Paving in Simi Valley, CA

Tips For Installing Residential Paving

Asphalt paving for residential driveways is a cost effective and long lasting alternative to concrete. This type of paving offers many advantages, including high skid resistance, low maintenance, and a smoother surface. It is often used to pave pathways, parking lots, and even cart paths.

One of the biggest advantages of asphalt is its ability to be designed to suit a wide variety of soils and conditions. A good paving contractor will also take into consideration budgetary concerns as well as the durability of the product.

The most popular type of residential paving is the asphalt driveway. These driveways are a cost-effective and attractive way to enhance the look of your home. However, installing a new one is not an easy task. As a result, you should hire a reputable paving company.

Before you begin, you should make sure that the project is approved by the municipality. Depending on the size of your property, you may need to work with the zoning board or planning department. If your paving job includes a subdrain, you will also have to consider the water management for the job.

If you have an existing concrete driveway, it may be possible to simply remove it and have the subbase converted to a new sub base for overlaying. However, this is not always the best option. For example, if your property has clayey soil, you will have to prepare the subbase properly.

Other options include the use of decorative concrete or an asphalt resurfacing process. Regardless of the material you choose, you should always look for the best paving company for your project. You can do this by contacting the Better Business Bureau or visiting the projects of potential contractors.

The best way to determine the appropriate thickness of asphalt is to take into account the specific needs of your project. While there are no hard and fast rules, a good rule of thumb is to use at least 2\" of asphalt for residential projects.

The smallest sized square yard of asphalt weighs between two and four tons. When comparing the cost of different types of paving materials, you should also consider the cost of labor, the costs of materials, and the time involved in the process. In addition, you will need to decide whether you would rather have an underdrain or not. Many residential driveways don\'t require underdrains, but some may.

Another advantage of an asphalt paving is the fact that it\'s much less expensive to install than other paving materials. In addition, it is far less susceptible to cracking than other types of paving materials. Lastly, it is very durable, allowing it to last for years without requiring a lot of maintenance.

Whether you are looking for a new residential driveway or resurfacing your current one, you should seek the help of a trusted paving contractor. The right choice can mean the difference between a beautiful and functional driveway and a disastrous one. Moreover, a good paving company will be able to answer all of your questions and address all of your concerns, helping you get the most out of your paving budget.

About Simi Valley, CA