Are you a person in the real estate profession? One of your first concerns should be the strength of the foundations of your structure. It is pointless to have a massive home if the flooring and walls are not sturdy.
The building of a foundation is a vital aspect of the process. It uses a structural support system to secure the structure underneath the building. It has two primary functions: to prevent overloading and lateral movement of the structure it supports and to provide structural support. If these steps are not completed correctly, it won't be easy to generate a result. It is critical to begin proper foundation work immediately and not delay.
Purpose of Foundation Work
This work is done to establish a stable foundation to support and hold together the structure built on top of it. Contrary to popular opinion, that the ground is solid and durable, it is not always the case.
Natural forces may cause cracks or damage to a home that is merely constructed on its foundation. A correctly designed foundation strengthens the resilience of a home structure to abuse and assures that the building is safe for the individuals who live in it.
Functions of the Foundation
The foundation of a building serves many functions. These functions are ranked according to the land beneath the building and the design of the building. These three are the most crucial functions of the foundation:
A house foundation is designed to support and bear the loads of the house structure that sits on top. Additional foundation structures, such as vertical piles, may stabilize the structure if the ground beneath is unstable. Continuous foundations can be described as one structure connected to all four in-ground footings.
A house that is constructed well will stay together. It can easily be swept away by natural forces, such as earthquakes, if it isn't anchored to a foundation. Foundations are made of dense, solid materials such as concrete and stone that resist shaking better than house superstructures. Bolting a house to its foundation will help it retain and stabilize its structure and make it less likely to be destroyed by a natural disaster.
Prevent Ground Moisture
There is a high risk of rot in ground-contacting posts in areas with heavy ground moisture. A box foundation with a concrete slab can be sealed to keep water out. It will protect the house from dampness and provide extra space.
Types of Foundations and Their Uses
There are two types of foundations: deep and shallow. Before deciding on a foundation type for your construction project, it is essential to understand its suitability. Here are the two types of foundation and their uses:
Also known as "spread" or "open feet," shallow foundations are best used when the building is not too heavy, or the soil can support a substantial amount of weight at a shallow depth.
Individual or Isolated Footing
The most commonly used foundation type for building construction is an individual footing. Also known as a "pad foundation," this foundation is designed for one column.
It can be rectangular, square, or even a geometric concrete block. It can carry the weight of one column or pillar. The width of each footing will be determined by the weight of the load and the soil's bearable capacity.
A combined footing is similar to an individual one, except that one base bears the weight of two columns or pillars that are close enough to warrant a shared foundation point.
Two or more columns may be combined into a single footing if their isolated footings are near enough to intersect. It's a collection of separate footings, but the way they're put together isn't the same.
Spread or Strip and Wall footings
It is common for the strip footing to be two or three times the width of the wall at issue and to be constructed of reinforced concrete. If the load-bearing wall is made of masonry, then a continuous footing extends along the entire length of the wall as a foundation.
These foundations are used when the building's weight will be distributed on load-bearing walls rather than columns, beams, or pillars. It can construct brick walls and build structures on gravel or tightly packed sand.
Raft or Mat Foundations
When a structure is constructed on a mat foundation, the whole load-bearing foundation is contained inside the basement. In cases when the soil is loose and weak and needs the weight to be uniformly distributed, mat foundations are often employed.
Mat foundations are also employed when the pillars or columns are close together and a basement is practicable. It is called a "raft foundation" because of the foundation being immersed in the earth like a water raft. It provides load-bearing support and water resistance.
A foundation should be placed deep underground or underwater to allow contact with the firmer layers of earth. Deep foundations are necessary when building on sandy soil or other soft soil. These soils will not absorb the building's load.
A pile foundation is a deep foundation used to transfer heavy loads to hard rock strata deep below ground level.
Pile foundations can be used to transfer heavy loads from structures to hard soil strata. It is much lower than the ground level for shallow foundations like spread or mat footings. It also prevents the structure from being lifted by lateral loads like earthquakes or wind forces.
Drilled Shafts or Caisson Foundation
Caissons are also known as "drilled shafts." They are a type of deep foundation that is similar to pile foundations but has a high capacity for casting in-situ foundations. It can resist loads from the structure by either shaft resistance or toe resistance. An auger is used to construct drilled shafts and caissons.
Drilled shafts or caisson foundations are inappropriate when water-bearing granular soils and soft clays are present. Soil that is unstable due to cavern formations, boulder-rich soil, or an artesian aquifer is not suited for this method.